Food systems

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Vol 5, No 2 (2022)
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80-93 75

The laws relating to fish and fishery product labeling that require indication of the information about fish species exist in many world countries. These rules are conditioned by a significant growth in the number of the economic fraud cases in the field of production and trade of fishery products. The widespread ways of fraud are replacement and mislabeling of a product as confirmed by many studies. Analysis of scientific works shows that mislabeling in fishery product manufacture occurs in 30–70% of cases in different countries. The existing legislation about food traceability is insufficient for their prevention, which suggests a necessity of taking strict control measures ensuring effective species identification of fish and fishery products. At present, various laboratory tests are used for their species identification. They are based, mainly, on analysis of unique DNA profiles found in different species. In this work, we present the method for detection of fish species using next generation sequencing (NGS). NGS is an advanced technology in the field of quality control of fishery products, especially for fish species identification in multicomponent products, which contain DNA fragments of other species besides the target DNA. NGS was carried out on the platform Ion Torrent Ion GeneStudio S5 System. Twenty samples were analyzed: 17 commercial samples and three prepared experimental samples consisted of the mixture of two and more species. The universal primers, which were able to amplify the fragment 16S rRNA of the commercial fish species, were selected and prepared. In general, DNA of 11 families, 15 genera and 16 species was identified in the course of the analysis. The obtained result of NGS of 17 commercial samples confirmed the results of identification by other molecular diagnostic methods. Mislabeling was revealed in four samples. In three samples, all fish species present in the composition were identified. Possible reasons for fish replacement were assessed.

94-99 51

The purpose of this work is to describe and study the previously unknown phenomenon of self-segmentation of a milk curd in an open-type cheesemaking tank. Based on the analysis of the kinetics of gel formation, it has been determined that self-segmentation of the gel begins near the gel point, develops over several tens of seconds, and becomes stable as the gel condenses. The segments in the milk curd do not have a definite regular shape; their average size varies from 5 to 50 cm. The shape and size of the segments do not repeat and do not correlate with the type of cheese being produced. The displacement of the segments of the milk curd in the cheesemaking tank relative to each other in height is from 0.5 to 2 mm. The width of the boundary layer between the curd segments increases during the secondary phase of gelation from 3 to 10 mm. As a result of experimental studies, it has been shown that self-segmentation of milk gel is caused by thermogravitational convection, which forms Benard convection cells. A description of a possible mechanism of milk gel self-segmentation in open-type cheesemaking tanks is proposed. The effective role of fat globules in the mechanism of self-segmentation of the milk curd has been noted. It has been suggested that self-segmentation of the milk curd in the cheesemaking tank may cause some organoleptic defects in the finished cheese, in particular inhomogeneity of texture and color.

100-106 68

3D printing technology attracts considerable attention due to its versatility and possibility of using in different industries such as the aerospace industry, electronics, architecture, medicine and food industry. In the food industry, this innovative technology is called food design. 3D printing is a technology of additive manufacturing, which can help the food industry in the development of new and more complex food products and potentially help manufacture products adapted to specific needs. As a technology that create foods layer by layer, 3D printing can present a new methodology for creating realistic food textures by precise placement of structuring elements in foods, food printing from several materials and design of complex internal structures. In addition to appearance and taste, food consistency is an important factor of acceptability for consumers. The elderly and people with dysphagia not infrequently suffer from undernutrition due to visual or textual unattractiveness of foods. The aim of this review is to study the available literature on 3D printing and assess recent developments in food design technologies. This review considers available studies on 3D food printing and recent developments in food texture design. Advantages and limitations of 3D printing in the food industry, possibilities of printing based on materials and consistency based on models as well as future trends in 3D printing including technologies of food preparation by printing on food printers are discussed. In addition, key problems that prevent mass introduction of 3D printing are examined in detail.

107-113 64

Wheat flour, especially high grade flour, is significantly impoverished in macro-, micronutrients and other valuable components such as essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, soluble and insoluble dietary fibers. To enrich wheat flour, the authors produced lentil-flax flour (protein-fat concentrate) with the high protein (27.5%) and fat (11.9%) content. The developed technological scheme of the combined grinding of lentil (67%) and flax (33%) seeds included the I–III break systems, sizing system, scratch system, 1–3 reduction systems. When studying physico-chemical and biochemical indicators, it was found that the protein-fat concentrate was close to the corresponding indicators of wheat flour by mechanical characteristics. A significant proportion of the albumin-globulin fraction of soluble proteins (88%), as well as the high content of the most deficient essential α-linolenic acid (6.11% compared to 0.05% in wheat flour with regard to the total fat content) suggest the high nutritional and biological value of the obtained product. Evaluation of an effect of the protein-fat concentrate on the indicators of the finished products (crackers) showed that its introduction in an amount of 15% of the total flour volume not only did not worsen but even improved sensory indices by several criteria. The high total sensory score (32 points) indicates the standard quality of the obtained product. Addition of lentil-flax flour in an amount of 15% of total flour weight in production of bakery products as well as bakery confectionary products will allow extending the assortment of balanced farinaceous products, significantly reducing the deficiency of essential α-linolenic acid in diets upon their consumption according to the physiological norms.

114-120 44

In the last few years, there has been a growing interest in the use of mare’s milk for human nutrition as well as in the use of this product for treatment and prevention of diseases such as hepatitis, chronic pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, tuberculosis and others. The beneficial properties of mare’s milk are determined first of all by its significant differences from ubiquitous cow’s milk. Many studies show that consumption of fermented milk products offers various advantages for health and the use of probiotic cultures in the composition of starters for fermented milk products allows imparting several functional properties to a product. However, kumis is the only available fermented milk product from mare’s milk on the market. Therefore, the development of new fermented milk products based on mare’s milk is topical and highly demanded. Fermented milk products were developed based on mare’s milk and mare’s milk with addition of cow’s milk using the association consisted of the starter for yogurt and the probiotic strain L. rhamnosus F. The aim of the work was to determine functional properties of fermented milk products based on mare’s milk and mare’s milk with addition of cow’s milk by in vitro methods. It was proved that the products had the high total antioxidant capacity, antiradical and antimicrobial activities as well as the low value of atherogenicity (1.22); the ratio of hypocholesterolemic fatty acids to hypercholesterolemic fatty acids is 1.40.

121-131 69

Quality characteristics of spirit drinks based on fruit distillates are formed mainly due to the concentration and the ratio of aroma-forming volatile components, part of which is transferred to a product from the initial raw materials. Analysis of data on the biochemical composition of the individual types of stone raw materials makes it possible to substantiate scientifically the regime parameters of the individual production stages and allows revealing adulteration. The present review considers questions concerning the search of chemical markers for fruit vodkas made on the basis of distillates from plum, cherry plum, cherry, sweet cherry, apricot and peach. The data are presented on the content of reducing sugars, titratable acidity, free amino acids, pH and sugar-acid index of the fruit raw materials under consideration. Significant variations of these indices depending on a raw material type and region of cultivation are shown. The questions of evaluation of the pectin complex in the individual types of stone raw materials are considered. The scheme of hydrolysis of pectin substances of fruit raw materials occurring at the stage of its preparation for distillation is presented. An important role of this process in formation of quality characteristics of fruit distillates and spirit drinks on their basis (fruit vodkas) is shown. The data on the composition and concentration of aroma-forming volatile components of individual types of stone raw materials are given. The data on the main physico-chemical characteristics of aroma-forming volatile components found in the fresh fruit types under consideration and methods for their analysis are presented. The generalized estimation of technological peculiarities of preparation of individual types of fruit raw materials for fermentation and distillation depending on their biochemical composition is given. In general, analysis of the data presented in this review allowed making a conclusion about prospects of investigations aimed to the development of identification indices of fruit distillates and fruit vodkas using the primary aroma-forming volatile components of raw materials.

132-138 64

The recipe composition of confectionary glaze determines its high caloricity upon the low content of physiologically significant substances. Introduction of fruit and vegetable raw materials makes it possible to increase a content of dietary fibers, vitamins, macro- and microelements in a product, as well as to reduce an amount of added sugar. This paper considers a technological possibility of introducing vegetable powders into the confectionary glaze recipe by the example of the beet powder. Physico-chemical indicators of the beet powder were studied in comparison with the classic recipe components of confectionary glaze. An effect of an amount of the beet powder (3–15%) introduced instead of part of sugar on the organoleptic, rheological and crystallization properties of glaze was studied. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that addition of the beet powder into the confectionary glaze recipe in an amount of more than 15% led to appearance of floury off-flavor. It was found that yield strength of glaze increased in the direct proportion to the content of beet powder in its composition (from 3.601 Pа to 4.446 Pa) and its value was in a range of the optimal values of 3÷7 Pа. Therefore, addition of the beet powder in an amount of up to 15% will not lead to technological difficulties. The study of the kinetics of the process of confectionary glaze structuring showed that addition of the beet powder led to a decrease in the solidification point and an increase in the time of glaze crystallization. The main crystallization parameters of the developed glaze were established: solidification point Tmax=28.0÷28.3°C, crystallization time τmax=8.2÷8.6 min. Based on the performed research, the following recipes were developed: vegetable-containing confectionary glaze with the beet powder content of 3 to 10%; vegetable confectionery glaze with the beet powder content of 13%.

139-144 55

The study describes the peculiarities of the development of uric acid produced by lesser grain borers Rhizopertha dominica during their vital activities in the grain mass. Pollution of grain by insects makes it poisonous. The conventional determination of grain pollution by the number of insects in the intergrain space in several cases (for example, after grain separation) gives a false picture of its actual hazard for human nutrition, which is a possibility for introduction of falsified grain products to the market. This leads to provision of the population with low-quality primary products, which, subsequently, reduces the quality of foods produced from such grain. During their vital activities, insects pollute grain with uric acid, which analysis is proposed as an alternative to the conventional method. The present study is devoted to the determination of the quantitative dependence of uric acid formation in wheat grain on the number of Rhizopertha dominica. It is shown that uric acid formation in grain by this pest is conditioned by the character of its nutrition with the development of a large amount of excrements in a form of fine gray dust with the characteristic odor commonly referred to as “floury dust”. It was established experimentally that the main part of uric acid excreted by the pest is concentrated in “floury dust”. Grain without “floury dust” contains the insignificant amount of uric acid; however, it is closely linked with the density of its pollution with imago Rh. dominica. As grain before milling in milling plants is subjected to thorough cleaning, during which “floury dust” is removed along with other contaminants, it is recommended to sift “floury dust” from grain before determination of uric acid in it.

145-156 65

The global concept of conscious consumption and healthy life-style affects the development of the food industry. As a consequence, over the last several decades, a production of sugar substitutes has been increased, a search for and creation of new sweetening substances have been carried out. The paper presents a review of the domestic and foreign studies devoted to the use of sugar substitutes in various branches of the food industry. The information about new types of sugar substitutes from natural starch-containing raw materials and their properties is given. A possibility of replacing crystalline sugar with sugar substitutes in food production is described, their effect on the physico-chemical, sensory and organoleptic properties of foods and beverages is demonstrated. The development of the technologies facilitates an extension of the range of well-known and widely used high-calorie sugar substitutes from starch-containing raw materials, characterized by different carbohydrate composition and properties. It has been noted that out of quite a large number of sugar substitutes applied in the food industry abroad, glucose-fructose syrups (GFS) are among most promising. They are full-value sucrose substitutes and have several advantages. A proportion of GFS in the total volume of sugar syrup consumption is increasing worldwide every year. The main raw material for production of GFS in the USA is corn starch; in the CIS countries, starch obtained from wheat and potato is also used. Studies aimed to investigation and development of bioprocesses that ensure production of competitive enzymatic GFS and other sweetening syrups from alternative sources are gaining in importance. The information is presented about the development of the innovative technologies for production of sugar syrups from Jerusalem artichoke and chicory, agave, yacon, sorghum and rice. The results of the study of properties of these syrups and their effect on the physical and sensory, rheological and microstructural properties of products, in which technologies these syrups were used, are described. Due to the different carbohydrate composition, as well as physico-chemical properties (a degree of hygroscopicity, anti-crystallization properties, a level of sweetness, glycemic index and so on), sugar substitutes acquire increasing popularity among producers and consumers, and can be used in food and beverage manufacturing as a more technological replacement of crystalline sugar.

157-163 54

Oxidative stress, to which many modern people are subjected, promotes the development of neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, inflammatory, oncological and other socially important diseases. The antioxidant system consisting in the endogenous and exogenous antioxidants exists in the body to regulate the action of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. The main source of exogenous antioxidants is food and this conditions an increase in the demand for functional foods. The market of functional drinks based on teas, cereal products, fruit and vegetable juices is developing especially actively. Drinks based on oat flakes with addition of plant components are distinguished by the high nutrition value being a rich source of dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. During the experiment, a functional drink based on oat flakes and enriched with bananas, blueberry berries and a powder of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) berries recognized for the high content of anthocyanins was developed. The antioxidant potential of the experimental product was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by the FRAP method and determining the antiradical activity (ARA) by the DPPH method. The TAC values for the aqueous and methanol extracts were 807.3±18.0 µmol quercitin equivalents /L and 948.7±47.9 µmol quercitin equivalents/L, respectively, which significantly exceeded the similar values in the control sample (by 2.44 and 1.69 times, respectively). The ARA of the methanol extract of the experimental drink was 86.49±2.01%, which was 1.9 times higher than the ARA of the control sample. It was established that about 10% of fat-soluble antioxidants are lost upon preparation of oat-based functional drinks with addition of elder berries.

164-171 61

The effect of milk-clotting enzymes (MCE) with different milk-clotting activity (MCA) and proteolytic activity (PA) based on recombinant calf chymosins (Chy-max® Extra: MCA=554 IMCU/g; PA=0.71 UA/g), camel (Chymax® M: MCA=904 IMCU/g; PA=0.68 PA units/g) and “modified” chymosin (Chy-max® Supreme: MCA=912 IMCU/g; PA=0.26 PA units/g) on the duration of milk coagulation, the composition of whey and fresh cheeses in the production of soft cheese of the Italian type Crescenza at a dose of MCE equal to 1500, 2500 and 3500 IMCU per 100 kg of milk was studied. With an equal introduction dose, the shortest average duration of curd formation is noted for Chy-max Supreme MCE (15.0–27.5 min), long one — for Chy-max M MCE (17.0–31.0 min), and the longest one — for MCE Chy-max Extra (18.0–35.5 min). There was no statistically significant effect (p<0.05) of the type and dose of MCE on the total duration of cheese processing, as well as on the content of fat, protein and dry matter of whey. The type and dose of MCE had an impact on the properties of fresh cheeses: cheese options produced with the maximum dose of Chy-max Supreme had a statistically significant (p><0.05) higher average dry matter content (49.61%) than cheese options made with minimal doses of MCE (47.64–47.91%).>< 0.05) of the type and dose of MCE on the total duration of cheese processing, as well as on the content of fat, protein and dry matter of whey. The type and dose of MCE had an impact on the properties of fresh cheeses: cheese options produced with the maximum dose of Chy-max Supreme had a statistically significant (p<0.05) higher average dry matter content (49.61%) than cheese options made with minimal doses of MCE (47.64–47.91%).> <0.05) of the type and dose of MCE on the total duration of cheese processing, as well as on the content of fat, protein and dry matter of whey. The type and dose of MCE had an impact on the properties of fresh cheeses: cheese options produced with the maximum dose of Chy-max Supreme had a statistically significant (p<0.05) higher average dry matter content (49.61%) than cheese options made with minimal doses of MCE (47.64–47.91%).><0.05) higher average dry matter content (49.61%) than cheese options made with minimal doses of MCE (47.64–47.91%).

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ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)