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Vol 3, No 4 (2020)
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4-10 32

The method based on the determination of the amount of active amino groups using o-Phthaldialdehyde (OPA method) can be applied in practice to assess accurately the degree of proteolysis in cheeses. The work establishes that the OPA method gives results that strictly correlate (R2 > 0.80, p < 0.01) with the results of assessing the degree of proteolysis by the Kjeldahl method. The results of the OPA method, expressed in the absorption intensity of the colored sample at a wavelength of 340 nm (OD340), can be converted to the content of soluble nitrogenous substances in cheese (WSN), using the calibration relationship between these indicators.

The accuracy of the calibration relationship between WSN and OD340 can be increased (R2 > 0.91, p< 0.01) when using the OPA method in relation to a homogeneous group of cheeses produced by the same technology using the same type of milk clotting enzyme and lactic acid starter culture and having a similar shape of the molecular mass distribution of proteolysis products.

The OPA method can be used to assess the content of proteolysis products, which form cheese flavor, in EMС. The results of assessing the degree of proteolysis by the OPA method (OD340) are proportional to both the total content of soluble nitrogen and the proportion of nitrogenous substances in it with a mass of less than 0.5 kDa, which make the greatest contribution to the formation of cheese flavor.

The advantage of using the OPA method for assessing proteolysis in cheeses and EMC instead of the Kjeldahl method is a simpler measurement procedure and the possibility of studying more samples in less time.

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Identification of wine product authenticity is a topical question in theRussian Federation. A solution to this problem can be DNA authentication of wines, which is a technological process of product authenticity control using genetic identification of the main plant ingredient — wine grape varieties. This type of wine verification is carried out by analyzing residual amounts of Vitis vinifera L. nucleic acids extracted from cell debris of final products by molecular genetic methods. The aim of this work is the analysis of the existing methods for extraction of nucleic acids from grapes, wine raw materials and commercial wines, as well as description of the molecular genetic approaches to technical genetic identification of grape varieties and authentication of wines made from them. The obtained data suggest suitability of DNA authentication of wine products as a supplement to earlier approved analytical methods (documentary, visual, sensory, physico-chemical).

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The aim of the research was to study the features of the structure of low-fat butter and butter pastes, which, in terms of composition and properties, more fully meet the requirements of a healthy diet than high-fat types of butter. The objects of research were: butter with fat content of 72.5%; butter with fat content of 55% made with the addition of skimmed milk powder; butter of the same fat content with the addition of stabilizers based on guar and xanthan gums and emulsifiers based on monoand diglycerides of fatty acids; butter pastes with fat content of 45% with similar additives used to increase the stability of the process of butter formation and improve the texture. The microstructure was studied using an MBI-6 microscope, and the ultramicrostructure was studied using a Phillips electron microscope. In the first case, the sample was prepared by crushing the sample, in the second one — by the method of ultrafast freeze-fracture and etching. Researches have shown that the use of the introduced ingredients improves the homogeneity of the structure of the studied products. Due to the ability of milk proteins and stabilizers to retain moisture, it is more evenly distributed and well retained in the fat matrix of the product, formed from crystalline and liquid fat in the form of a continuous phase, which is confirmed by a sufficient penetration depth of the fat-soluble dye. Plasma droplets in butter with fat content of 72.5% and 55% are more isolated than in butter pastes, as indicated by the greater penetration depth of the water-soluble dye. The average diameter of isolated moisture droplets in low-fat products was 3.3–5.4 μm, and the average diameter of the fat globules that form the basis of the crystalline framework was 5.4–7.4 μm, depending on the composition of the product. For butter with fat content of 72.5%, the values of these indicators were 2.8 and 4.0 μm. The results of the study indicate the presence of differences in the sizes of structural elements, but at the same time confirm the uniformity of the structure of low-fat products, allowing them to be attributed to dispersions «water-in-oil».

20-23 19

Currently, one of the most important tasks facing science and production is the creation of functional product technologies for use in different diets of the population in order to preserve and improve health, as well as reduce the risks and consequences of various diseases, including hereditary ones, such as phenylketonuria (PKU). The All-Russian Research Institute of Starch Products develops technologies for the production of low-protein starch-based products/semi-products enriched with functional ingredients and intended for therapeutic nutrition of patients with PKU. As part of the pilot production, the production of these products is organized. Purpose of work:to justify the possibility of using dry components of chicken eggs (melange, protein, yolk) to enrich low-protein starch products (noodles, vermichel, «spider») intended for feeding children over 3 years old with phenylketonuria;evaluate organoleptic properties and efficiency of low-protein starch products enriched in hypophenylalanine diet of patients with phenylketonuria older than 3 years.

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The review article examines the main global trends in the development of scientific research in the field of increasing the efficiency of dairy products production using polysaccharides of various origins and purposes. It has been shown that non-traditional polysaccharides of plant origin are increasingly involved in industrial production, including polysaccharides of aquatic organisms, which have both enhanced technological properties — emulsifying, gel-forming, texturizing, etc., and innovative nutraceutical properties that make it possible to create food products with new properties and attractive to consumers. It is noted that the nature of proteinpolysaccharide interactions, depending on the types of proteins and polysaccharides used in various combinations and conditions of their interactions, can be completely different, which directly affects the organoleptic properties of the finished product. Modern research confirms that the properties of a food product are largely laid down at the molecular — nanoscale, and the development of research on protein-polysaccharide interactions, with the aim of their practical use in the production of dairy products, should be aimed at finding basic patterns in these interactions.
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The method of historical and statistical data analysis makes it possible to identify development and characteristic patterns, both temporary and permanent, production criteria for various branches of the food industry. The application of this method made it possible to trace formation of the alcohol industry inRussiaand identify critical historical events that influenced its development. The article presents and analyzes statistical data on the production of the main types of alcoholic beverages industry since 1913.

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The article presents the results of a study of the regularities of changes in the functional properties and quality indicators of heat-treated cheeses made from frozen cheese raw material or frozen after thermomechanical processing for further use in HoReCa. The objects of the study were: Caliatta cheese — a semi-hard ripening cheese intended as the main raw material in the production of heat-treated cheese, as well as heat-treated «pizzacheese», subjected to freezing at temperatures of minus 14 ±2 °Cand minus 55 ±2 °Cand low-temperature storage at a temperature of minus 14 ±2 °Cfor 270 days, followed by defrosting at a temperature of 20 ±2 °C. To confirm the possibility of using the freezing technique in order to increase the shelf life of both the original cheese raw material and heat-treated cheese, their microbiological and physicochemical indicators were determined by standardized methods. Studies of structural and mechanical (rheological) properties were carried out on a Weissenberg rheogoniometer, recording changes in the elastic modulus (G’) and dynamic viscosity (h’). The length of the cheese thread, as one of the main functional properties of the «pizza-cheese», was assessed with a fork test after baking. Organoleptic characteristics were assessed by flavor, texture and appearance. Research results have shown that low-temperature storage of frozen cheese can be considered as a way to retard biological and physicochemical changes, which is a safe way to increase shelf life. Freezing cheese raw material increases the length of the cheese thread in proportion to the temperature and duration of the low-temperature storage. When obtaining heat-treated cheese from both unfrozen and frozen cheese raw material, a significant deterioration in the desired functional properties is observed. Thus, the receipt of heat-treated cheese from the original cheese raw material for further use in the production of pizza is justified only by economic feasibility. Freezing «pizza-cheese» at a temperature of minus 55 ±2 °C, made from unfrozen cheese raw material, ensures the preservation of functional properties and increases the shelf life up to 150 days.

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ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)