Food systems

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The national peer reviewed journal “Food systems” is dedicated to the main problems of food science.

The main mission is to create, aggregate, support and distribute the scientific content in the field of the food industry, join the efforts of researchers from scientific centers and universities, bridge the gap between publications at the regional, national and federal levels. The journal “Food systems” serves to highlight topical problems in the food and related industries, promote new promising technologies among the wide audience of scientific and practical professionals, lecturers, students, postgraduate students and entrepreneurs. The scientific concept of the journal envisages publication of new knowledge in the field of food systems and scientific foundations of the resource saving technologies for deep processing of agricultural raw materials, breakthrough technical solutions for producing food of general and specialized purpose.

The journal “Food systems” publishes scientific and review papers, reports, communications, critical reviews, short scientific communications (letters to the editorial office), information materials concerned with

  • food technology and processes;
  • equipment and apparatus for food production;
  • nutritional hygiene;
  • biotechnology;
  • standardization, certification, quality and safety;
  • economics;
  • automation and informatization of technological processes.

The editors strive to expand the pool of writers and welcome new authors.

Article processing charges

All publication costs for the Journal are covered by V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.

The journal “Food systems” is included in the Russian index of scientific citation  and registered in the Scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.RU  and DOAJ

The journal has been published since 2018 with the publication frequency of four issues per year.

According to the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, the journal is included into the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Sciences and the degree of Doctor of Sciences should be published.


Authors of articles published in the Journal retain the copyright of their articles and are free to reproduce and disseminate their work. All articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC BY 4.0), which permits their use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

Open access

We follow the open access policy proclaimed by the Budapest Open Access Initiative to encourage knowledge sharing across the globe. For more information please read BOAI statement.

All articles published by the Journal are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers.

Every article accepted for publication in the Journal is assigned a DOI number (Digital Object Identifier).

Founder and publisher of the journal " Food systems " is the V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Journal is registered in the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Registration Certificate Number: PI № FC77-71610 of 13.11.2017; Online Media Registration Number: EL № FC 77-72022 of 26.12.2017).

Current issue

Vol 7, No 1 (2024)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)
4-14 275

Monitoring and maintaining food quality, safety, and authenticity are the most important concerns in the food industry. The cutting-edge flexible sensors for food monitoring precisely satisfy the needs of acquiring information on multiple parameters in a small space, they provide for the more reasonable layout, get data on the mechanical deformations, and can be conformably attached to arbitrarily curved surfaces. The flexible sensing materials with a large area of specific surface, that ensure high mobility and density of the media, feature dense active sites, outstanding adjustability and high processing capacities, such as two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials, conductive polymers, and nano-hybrid materials; those materials have further improved the sensitivity, stability and selectivity of the flexible sensors’ perception. This article attempts to critically review the present state-of-arts developments in relation to the materials, manufacturing techniques and sensing mechanisms of the devices, as well as the applications of the electrically-transduced flexible sensors. Moreover, this article elaborates on the transduction mechanisms of the several typical transducers, with a focus on the physics behind, including the modulation of the doping level, Schottky barrier, and interfacial layer that typically cause changes in conductivity, functionality and permittivity. We also highlight the benefits and the technical challenges along with the appropriate solutions provided by the presented flexible sensors, and we also consider the potential strategies that allow overcoming limitations in power consumption, quantitatively assess the trade-offs in maintaining the quality and marketability, to optimize wireless communication and explore new sensing patterns.

15-21 234

The aim of the study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of volatile aroma compounds and their formation pathways in brine Ossetian cheeses. Volatile components of cheeses were isolated by steam distillation and extraction with dichloromethane, with their subsequent determination and quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results of the analysis are presented according to the structural classes of the main chemical components and the corresponding microbial metabolic processes. Four processes were found to be the main contributors to flavor formation: lipolysis, proteolysis, glycolysis, and a number of oxidative enzymatic transformations. Lipolysis of the fatty fraction of cheeses is a source of formation of volatile carboxylic acids and their esters. Proteolysis of the casein fraction yields branched alcohols, aldehydes, and a number of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. Glycolysis of the carbohydrate fraction is a source of ethanol formation, which is the main cause of the dominance of ethyl esters in the ester fraction. Redox enzymatic transformations mainly determine the biosynthesis of unbranched aldehydes, ketones and lactones. A clear distinction between retail and homemade cheeses was observed, due to the different technological approaches to the cheese preparation. The structuralchemical and quantitative evolution of the volatile composition of the studied cheese samples during ripening is tentatively shown. From the authors’ point of view, the aromatic composition of the Tib cheese sort is the most consistent with the Ossetian cheese standard. This study represents the first gas chromatographic study of Ossetian cheeses and aims to create objective criteria for controlling technological processes and product quality during production and storage in the food industry.

22-30 355

Over the last decades, optical spectroscopy methods that do not require complex sample preparation have been widely used to identify and control the composition of food products. In the present study, the possibility of using UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for grading wheat flour into groups differing in technological properties was analyzed. UV-VIS-NIR spectra contain information on the combination and intensity of absorption bands assigned to functional groups of the composition components and determining the technological properties of wheat flour. The database of UV-VIS-NIR spectra of wheat flour samples differing by technological properties was formed into three groups: the first group — wheat flour samples with good baking properties, the second group — with reduced baking properties, the third group — with low baking properties. The visible range of UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectrum was used to calculate the color coordinates in the CIE colorimetric system L*a*b*. The greatest difference among the groups in the color coordinates of the samples was found for the coordinate b*, which is associated with the different content of coloring pigments. The spectra database was used to build a classification model for grading wheat flour into quality groups using a combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) methods. The achieved results indicate that the classification model built on the training sample is able to distinguish wheat flour spectra by quality groups with an accuracy of 96.49%. The effectiveness of the model is verified using a test set of spectra of wheat flour samples. The present study confirms that the combination of UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy in conjunction with the PCA-LDA method has significant potential for determining a quality group of wheat flour based on technological properties.

31-43 276

The growing problem of environmental pollution by plastic leads to the search not only for the most promising biodegradable polymer, but also for optimal raw materials for its production. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) — biodegradable polymers with physical and mechanical properties close to traditional plastics — are considered a potential solution to this problem. The production of PHA can be organized according to the principles of circular bioeconomy through biotechnological processing of secondary raw materials to produce a product with added value. However, an important component of the expansion of PHA production is the need to find the most promising secondary raw materials for its production. The PHA market in Russia and the global market have been analyzed, highlighting the demand in the packaging and food industries, biomedicine and agroindustry as the fundamental factor for the growth of PHA production. Bibliographic analysis using the PRISMA scheme and VOSviewer program allowed identifying three main directions of PHA research: search for optimal secondary raw materials among food waste, analysis of challenges in PHA production, and the ecological and economic effects of its implementation. Promising types of secondary raw materials have been revealed: vegetable oil production waste, fruit and vegetable processing waste, dairy whey, sugar and starch industry waste, spent coffee grounds and coffee oils extracted from them. Advantages and disadvantages of using secondary raw materials, options for improving their use in the production of PHA, and the main strains-producers were determined. To optimize the cost and processes of PHA production, further studies of food waste are required, aimed at developing approaches to increase the polymer yield, including through the use of secondary raw material preparation processes, and the search for the most productive strains synthesizing PHA.

44-51 216

Protein hydrolysates are a promising active component in the production of bioactive film coatings for food products. Some biopolymers can exert the biological activity. More often, however, it is necessary to select biologically active substances to impart these properties to films. On the other hand, not all components allow forming films with the required properties, and therefore there is a need to study the individual technological characteristics of the components used. The purpose of the research is to establish the antioxidant and technological properties of protein hydrolysates obtained by microbial fermentation of poultry by-products in whey with bifidobacteria, propionic acid bacteria and acidophilic bacteria as a potential basis for bioactive film coatings of food products. The hydrolysate obtained by fermentation without the addition of the specified bacterial species was used as a control sample. The functional properties of protein hydrolysates were assessed: antioxidant capacity by coulometric titration on an Expert-006 coulometer using ascorbic acid as a standard, antiradical activity by the DPPH method on a Jenway 6405 UV/Vis spectrophotometer with determination of the IC50 value. The technological properties, solubility, water-holding, fat-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities were also determined by the gravimetric method. In addition, the average hydrodynamic diameter of particles in protein hydrolysates was determined using a Microtrac FLEX particle size analyzer. The results of studies of the antioxidant properties showed that the DPPH antiradical activity was 14.7% higher in the experimental samples of hydrolysates obtained by fermentation with bifidobacteria compared to the control; samples of hydrolysates obtained by fermentation with propionic acid bacteria showed an antioxidant capacity 29.6% higher than that of the control sample. The IC50 value turned out to be the highest in the control hydrolysate sample (2.994 mg/ml), which was 45.5–53.3% higher than that in the experimental hydrolysate samples. The results of determining the technological properties showed that they differ significantly for protein hydrolysates obtained by fermentation with different types of bacteria. For example, the highest values of fat-holding and fat-emulsifying capacities were found in the hydrolysate obtained by fermentation with bifidobacteria (351.1% and 61%, respectively), which shows its potential for incorporation into the bio-composite in the form of a protein-oil emulsion. The high solubility of the experimental samples of hydrolysates (from 90.1 to 91.4%) suggests their uniform distribution in the aqueous phase when composing the biocomposite of the film. Thus, the research results have shown the prospects of using protein hydrolysates from the gizzards of broiler chickens in whey as an active component of bioactive film coatings. The antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates allow slowing down oxidative processes in the main food nutrients, which will contribute to an increase in the shelf life of food products packaged in bioac- tive films with this component.

52-58 332

This review is devoted to an analysis of the hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds’ nutritional aspects and food production perspectives, that can become a valuable source of multifunctional components for functional food production. Cannabis sativa L. is a multipurpose crop with lowenvironmental impact traditionally cultivated in Western cultures for fiber production. The propagation of synthetic fibers and the production of intoxicating drugs from certain narcotic strains resulted in the banning of its cultivation. Thus, culturing the varieties that are widely known as „industrial hemp“ has only been practiced for the past two decades. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is grown not only for its economic importance but also for the seeds’ nutritional value. Hemp seeds consists of 25–35% lipids with perfectly balanced fatty acids (FAs); 20–25% proteins, which are easy to digest and contain all essential amino acids; 20–30% carbohydrates, mainly dietary fiber; and vitamins and minerals. Besides its nutritional value, hempseed is also rich in antioxidants and bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, polyphenols with high free radicals scavenging activity, and cannabinoids. Therefore, this study reviews the scientific knowledge about Cannabis sativa L. seeds and their progressive aspects of cultivation, functional and therapeutic potential, and its use in functional food production.

59-70 236

The modern consumer prefers natural products with minimal processing, which allows maximum preservation of the nutritional value of the product and fresh taste and aroma. The purpose of this article is to review the results of studies concerning the effect of ohmic heating on the product in comparison with heat treatment and considering the combined use of this method with non-thermal technologies in the production of canned fruit and vegetables. The material for this study was 105 scientific publications. A search for scientific literature in English and Russian on the use of the ohmic heating technology in the process of processing fruits and vegetables was carried out in the bibliographic databases Scopus, Web of Science, as well as in other sources. The period 2010–2023 was adopted as the time frame for the review of scientific publications. To review the subject field of the study, an algorithm was used in accordance with the PRISMA protocol. A scientific search and review of scientific publications on the research topic showed a limited number of studies assessing the ohmic heating (OH) technology in the processing of fruits and vegetables. In the process of using this technology, electric current is applied, ensuring uniform and rapid release of heat inside the food matrix. OH has a shorter processing time, which helps preserve the organoleptic quality of the product and its nutritional value. Compared to heat treatment, the OH technology not only inactivates microorganisms and food enzymes, but also prevents overheating, which reduces the negative impact of temperature on the chemical composition of the product. Evaporation/concentration, dehydration/drying of fruit juices or purees using OH resulted in higher energy efficiency and reduced processing time compared to traditional processing methods. Despite many advantages, there are limitations to large-scale industrial application of the OH method, including corrosion of the electrodes, which can have a negative impact on the product, as well as uneven heating of some types of fruit and vegetable raw materials during continuous processing. The results of this review can be used in the process of conducting further scientific research, which is advisable to continue in order to determine specific processing parameters and eliminate uneven heating of food raw materials.

71-76 379

Kojic acid (KA) is an organic acid that is generated by various fungi, particularly by Aspergillus species, as a secondary metabolite. The current study is aimed to determine the optimal conditions for the production of kojic acid from various fungal strains grown on agro-industrial wastes. After testing six fungal strains for their suitability for kojic acid production, Aspergillus oryzae (AUMC.64) and Aspergillus tamari (AUMC.43) were found to be the highest producers of KA. Three different agro-industrial wastes were screened as a fermentation media and sugar cane molasses showed the highest productivity for (KA). Aspergillus oryzae (AUMC.64), and Aspergillus tamari (AUMC.43) achieved the maximal production of kojic acid (25.91, 18.95 ± 0.001 g. L-1respectively) from sugarcane molasses (SCM) under optimum conditions of growth (10% solution of sugarcane molasses, pH 4.0 and fermentation period of 10 days). Also, the antimicrobial activities of KA produced by A. oryzae AUMC64 and A. tamari AUMC43 against the selected test strains of microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium were recorded. The maximum growth inhibition zone (20–13.2 mm) was observed on the cultures of Escherichia coli. Meanwhile the antioxidant activities of KA produced by A. oryzae AUMC64 and A. tamari AUMC43 was 79.1 and 62.42%, respectively.

77-83 215

To expand the range of competitive alcoholic beverages with original organoleptic properties, it is promising to study the use of new types of plant raw materials in grain distillate technologies. The purpose of this work was to establish the influence of the characteristics of the composition of grain wort prepared with the joint use of an alternative raw material source — buck- wheat and corn, which is widely used in alcohol production, on the metabolic processes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 985-T and alcoholic fermentation. The objects of the study were buckwheat and corn; enzyme preparations — sources of amylases, xylanases, β-glucanases and proteases; samples of grain wort, mash and mash distillates. The prospects of introducing mixed grain media prepared using non-traditional buckwheat raw materials into the technology of original alcoholic beverages are substantiated. It was shown that the use of buckwheat as a source of biocomplete protein, essential amino acids and minerals together with corn containing a high level of starch and a low level of non-starch polysaccharides contributed both to an increase in the yield of alcohol and a change in the quantitative content of secondary metabolites in the composition of volatile impurities. It was found that an increase in the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the wort and a decrease in its viscosity by 15.5–40.3% occurred due to the inclusion of corn in the composition of the grain mixture, and the enrichment of the wort with nitrogen assimilated by yeast by 19.0–41.8% — as a result adding buckwheat. The optimal ratio of corn and buckwheat in the composition of the grain mixture (7:3) was selected, which made it possible to improve the biochemical and technological parameters of grain must, increase the efficiency of the vital processes of yeast and alcoholic fermentation, ensure an increase in the yield of alcohol by 1.8%, reduce the formation of side metabolites, especially higher alcohols, and change their composition in the direction of increasing the proportion of aldehydes and esters, which can have a positive effect on the organoleptic characteristics of the distillate.

84-90 298

The current study was carried out to prepare functional flakes from various cereals and to assess the nutritional value of breakfast cereal flakes and their sensory acceptability. Oat, soft wheat and durum wheat, barley (hull-less and hulled), triticale, millet and sorghum grains have been used. Physicochemical, functional, phytochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined. The developed cereal flakes have high nutritional value and are high in dietary fiber. Concerning the overall acceptability of flakes, durum wheat, hull-less barley and triticale were more preferred than the other samples. Meanwhile, hulled barley and millet flakes showed the lowest scores compared with other flake samples due to the lowest score of their appearance and color. Triticale, durum wheat and hulled barley turned to be good alternatives for oat to prepare flakes of high-quality characteristics, as they have high protein (13.46, 11.92 and 11.67%, respectively) and ash contents along with low content of fat and low calories. In terms of nutritional quality, the results indicated that oat flakes were higher in Mg and P content, durum wheat flakes showed higher content of Mn, triticale had the highest content of K and Ca, and millet had the highest content of Zn and Fe. Triticale flakes showed significantly higher content of dietary fiber and water absorption index at room and hot temperatures when compared with other flakes. While comparing total phenolic content, the millet and barley flakes showed the highest values. Additionally, most flake samples had significantly higher values of antioxidant activity compared to oat flakes used as control samples.

91-98 208

Yaks are the large herbivorous ruminants that live in high mountain pastures at altitudes from 2,000 to 4,000 m above sea level. This environment is quite harsh, and yaks calmly tolerate extreme cold — down to minus 40 ºС. The main food of yaks are herbaceous plants, the vegetation season of which in a cold mountain climate is short, about 3–4 months, and therefore they feed mostly on wilted pasture, which is, in principle, sufficient for these animals. At the end of winter, when the amount of pasture feed decreases, the animals become malnourished and lose weight. Therefore, yak farmers often face the need to feed their animals in winter. A complete ration of an animal, along with other factors, has a significant impact on the composition of milk and its productive ability. The aim of the work is to study the chemical composition, in particular the protein fraction, of the milk of yaks living in the mountainous regions of Kyrgyzstan in comparison with the milk of yaks from different regions of the world. The object of the study was milk of yaks inhabiting the highland regions of Naryn province of Kyrgyzstan. Samples were collected and tested according to standard methods. Studies have shown that the milk of yaks from the Kyrgyz population contains more protein (5.66%) than milk from yaks in the mountains of China, Russia and Mongolia (4.95, 4.55 and 5.3%, respectively). Milk we studied is high in amino acids such as methionine, lysine, proline, phenylalanine, and alanine. Seasonal (spring, summer) changes in the protein composition (whey proteins, casein proteins), amino acid profile, total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen of yak milk were also studied. The total content of amino acids in the milk of Kyrgyz female yaks is noticeably higher in spring (6189.96 mg/100 g) than in summer (5101.47 mg/100 g). The research results presented in this article showed that the milking season and the associated feeding ration of yaks affects the composition of milk, which is associated with the nutritional value of grass feed and its nutrient content. Spring milk contains more proteins and amino acids than summer milk, which is due to the high protein content of plants in the spring period before the flowering phase. Milk of Kyrgyz yak with proven high nutritional and biological value is an alternative to cow milk.

99-104 271

Gnocchi is a type of homemade pasta made from potatoes, flour and eggs. Improving food product quality in terms of nutrition in gnocchi products it is possible now also use food waste. In addition to improvement of food product quality and human health, the addition of dragon fruit peel, which is considered as waste, can provide reasonable solutions or ideas about recycling of food waste. In this study, the produced food product was gnocchi with addition of by-product — dragon fruit peel, which was tested for fiber content and content of the following minerals: iron, potassium, calcium. The data obtained were then analyzed statistically by the SPSS program to determine the effect of variation using the T-test. Based on the results of the study it was concluded that the content of dietary fiber of dragon fruit peel in the sample of gnocchi denoted as F3 featured the highest water-soluble dietary fiber content with a score of 1.33%, water insoluble dietary fiber content with a score of 1.86%. and total dietary fiber content with a score of 3.19%. This also shows that the more dragon fruit peel is added, the higher is the total dietary fiber content in gnocchi with addition of dragon fruit peel. This high dietary fiber will be beneficial to humans, especially good for the digestive system. Meanwhile, the mineral content of gnocchi with dragon fruit peel also showed that the F3 sample had the highest mineral content, in particular — iron (Fe) in amount of 1.886 mg/100 g, potassium (K) 6.179 mg/100 g, and calcium (Ca) in amount of 25.339 mg/100 g. This also shows that the addition of dragon fruit peel is useful for improvement of human health and the quality of food product, i. e. gnocchi by increasing the total content of dietary fiber and improving the mineral composition of gnocchi due to addition of dragon fruit peel. 

105-113 230

Express methods for estimating the intensity of heat treatment of milk are necessary in industry and in research work. For this reason, there are many ways to measure this parameter, which are based on different physical principles, including turbidimetric methods. The Harland & Ashworth turbidimetric method has been developed for a long time, however, due to its high reliability and ease of implementation, it is still used in practice. However, this method has a drawback: it takes a long time to perform the analysis. In this regard, the aim of the work is to develop an express method for evaluating the thermal class of milk based on the principle of measuring the concentration of soluble whey proteins. The result is achieved through the use of a turbidimetric measurement method with optimized sample preparation parameters and parameters for measuring the optical density of a suspension of protein aggregates. The method is implemented as follows. The milk sample is mixed with 0.1 N acetate buffer (pH 4.6) in a ratio that allows to obtain a concentration of soluble milk whey proteins from 0.05% to 0.1%. Recommended dilution coefficients: 1:3 for samples of ultra-pasteurized milk and pasteurized milk with high heat treatment intensity; 1:7 for samples of pasteurized milk with low heat treatment intensity and 1:14 for raw milk samples. The solution is filtered on a membrane filter with a pore size of 0.45 microns. The resulting filtrate is mixed with 24% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in a 1:1 ratio to coagulate soluble whey proteins and form protein aggregates. After holding for 5–10 minutes, the optical density of the suspension of protein aggregates is measured at a wavelength of 650 nm. The content of water-soluble whey proteins in the sample can be calculated according to the calibration curve. The developed method allows to obtain the measurement result in less time than the Harland & Ashworth turbidimetric method.

114-124 258

Production of freeze-dried juice semi-finished products is a promising direction in the technology of processing blueberries. This direction allows complex problem solving regarding seasonality of berry processing with optimization of logistics costs, extension of the geography of sources of raw material supply while preserving high sensory properties of a freeze-dried product. The main advantages of such a product are characteristics determining properties of fresh berries, including taste, color, aroma, nutritional and biological value. The aim of the study was the development of technological solutions to produce freeze-dried blueberry juice from enzymatically processed blueberry pulp, as well as determination of its biochemical characteristics. Chemical (titrimetric and gravimetric) methods and modern physico-chemical methods (HPLC, atomic absorption spectrometry, potentiometric and spectrophotometric methods) were used in the work. As a result of the performed investigations, parameters have been determined for the process of freeze-drying of native blueberry juice: freeze-drying temperature of –23 ±2 °С and pressure of 70–80 Pa, secondary drying at a temperature of 38–40 °С. Duration of the freeze-drying process was 16 hours until reaching the final moisture of 4%. It is shown that freeze-dried juice preserves all quality attributes of the native juice: taste, color and aroma. The native and freeze-dried blueberry juice was characterized by the chemical composition. The profile of flavonoids, anthocyans, phenolic and organic acids, composition of sugars, vitamins and minerals were studied. It has been established that the chosen parameters of freeze-drying ensure preservation of biologically active and minor substances at a level of no less than 77% of the initial content in the native juice. High preservation was demonstrated for quercetin and resveratrol. Losses were 9.6% for epicatechin, 13.7–23.0% for phenolic acids, and 14–22% for vitamins. As a result of juice processing by freeze-drying, an increase was noticed for the content of delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-arabinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside by 20–35%. The proportion of cyanidin-3-galactoside + delphinidin-3-arabinoside decreased by 65% and that of delphinidin-3-galactoside by 2.85 times. A decrease in the content of macro-elements (up to 6.0%) was established in the freeze-dried juice; more noticeable losses were recorded for micro-elements (up to 14.8%). The results obtained show prospects of using the technology and chosen regimes of freeze-drying in production of freezedried blueberry juice. This technology combines a possibility of producing a manufacturable berry ingredient with maximum preservation of natural biologically active and minor components of berries for using in products of healthy nutrition.

125-136 334

The study of antimicrobial compounds of animal origin, particularly antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), is a current research topic. However, extracting endogenous AMPs is a challenging process and requires the application of targeted enzymatic processing principles based on knowledge of the structure of prepropeptide molecules — precursors of AMPs. In this study, a search was conducted for antimicrobial peptides present in Sus scrofa and Bos taurus organisms, as well as their precursors, using The Antimicrobial Peptide Database and UniProtKB databases. In the amino acid sequences of prepropeptides, the sequences of the mature peptides were found, and cleavage sites for trypsin, bacterial collagenase (type I), and neutrophil elastase were determined. As a result of the search for antimicrobial compounds in The Antimicrobial Peptide Database, 18 antimicrobial peptides from Sus scrofa and 40 antimicrobial peptides from Bos taurus were identified. Based on the results of determining cleavage sites in AMP precursors, enzymes were ranked from less preferred to more preferred for AMP release as follows: bacterial collagenase (type I) ≤ trypsin < neutrophil elastase. This order is justified not only by the number of suitable cleavage sites and their accuracy but also by the action of enzymes within mature AMPs: it is important to consider that enzymes can “cut” the peptides themselves, thereby reducing their antimicrobial activity. The bioinformatics analysis conducted is applicable for both primary screening of raw material potential and determining of suitable enzymes for extracting antimicrobial compounds from Sus scrofa and Bos taurus organisms.

137-143 337

Chemical characteristics and microbiological quality of filtered water generated from municipal water using mono-, di- and penta-stage (5-stage) filters, as well as disposed drain water were investigated. With the application of the household water penta filters, the total dissolved solids (TDS) of the filtered water were highly reduced (0.04–0.07 g/L) and, consequently, electrical conductivity also decreased. Furthermore, total hardness was completely removed (0–2 mg CaCO3/L), as well as the chloride content. In the same manner, the nitrate content in the filtered water resulted from the household water penta filters decreased significantly (0.5–0.9 mg/L). Cations, such as Na+ and K+, in the filtered water were greatly affected and were 18–28 and 2 mg/L, respectively. Filtered water generated from the house-water penta filters was not in compliance with the daily amounts of F, Na and K necessary for teenagers and kids, and it might cause a risk of deficiencies. From the microbiological point of view, the penta-stage filter effectively removed total bacterial counts and total coliforms from water making it completely safe for potable and other domestic uses. The home water mono- and di- filters had low effectiveness of contaminant removal.

144-150 311

The article presents the results of a study of the quality indicators of brine-ripened cheeses produced from defrosted sheep’s milk. The objects of the study were natural and defrosted sheep’s milk, brine-ripened cheeses from this milk. The study of defrosted sheep’s milk (experiment) was carried out after 10 days of its storage at a temperature of –18 °C followed by defrostation at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °C. The composition of natural sheep’s milk (control) was examined after storage for 24 ± 12 hours at a temperature of 4 ± 2 °C. It has been found that the freezing of milk and its subsequent defrostation did not have a significant effect on the milk solids content, the mass fraction of protein and fat, titrated acidity; however, the mass fraction of calcium decreased, on average, by 20%. Freezing milk did not significantly affect the total number of micro- organisms, including spore aerobic microorganisms and molds. A decrease in the number of somatic cells (from 3.0 to 4.5 times) was found. There were no differences between the control and experimental milk samples in the renneting ability. The level of syneresis of clots in the control sample was 16 ± 1% higher compared to the experimental sample. The cheeses were produced according to the traditional technological scheme of brine-ripened cheese using a production mesophilic bacterial starter culture. The control and experimental cheeses did not differ significantly in physical and chemical parameters. According to the degree of proteolysis, there were no significant differences between the control and experimental variants. In the experimental sample, a decrease in the buffer capacity of the cheese mass was noted in comparison with the control cheeses. The freezing of milk did not have a significant effect on the taste characteristics of the cheeses: in both variants, the cheeses were characterized by a weakly expressed cheese, fermented milk taste with original taste of sheep’s milk. More noticeable differences were found in the consistency of the cheeses. In the control version, the consistency was characterized as tender, slightly brittle; in the experimental version, it was less tender, but brittle and slightly powdery. The greatest deterioration in consistency was observed in the samples of frozen cheese made from natural milk after defrosting; it was characterized as brittle, powdery, crumbly.

151-156 361

This paper aims to provide an overview of the main findings and conclusions of the research on freshly sliced Egyptian red beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Beetroot belongs to the botanical family of Chenopodiaceae and encompasses various variations with bulb hues that span the spectrum from yellow to crimson. It is known that the ethanolic extract from beet contains many health-beneficial and bioactive chemicals, such as alkaloids, carotenoids, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids; it also contains vitamins C, B3, B6, and B9. Hence, the beetroot extract exhibits both antioxidant and nutritional properties. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of two different drying processes, oven-drying (OD) and freeze-drying (FD), on the physicochemical qualities of betalain pigments and antioxidants. Overall, freeze-dried (FD) samples demonstrated superior retention of beetroots proximate composition when compared to those dried in the oven. This was observed in terms of minerals and antioxidants, with freeze-drying resulting in higher levels of these components compared to oven drying. On the other hand, reductions in some phenolic compounds were found in the samples treated with the freeze-drying method when compared with the oven-drying method. It was proven that red beets have a lot of phenolic compounds, including kaempferol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, gallic acid, catechin acid, rutin, hesperidin, naringin, quercetin, and ferulic acid.

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The article presents comparative studies of the composition, physico-chemical and structural-mechanical characteristics of butter samples produced by the method of converting high-fat cream from domestic raw materials, and foreign-made but- ter by churning cream in continuous buttermakers, as well as their influence on the process of puff pastry formation and the organoleptic properties of finished products made from puff pastry. The purpose of the research is to assess the suitability of butter produced by the method of converting high-fat cream for the production of puff pastry and products made from it. New Zealand butter samples produced by the method of churning cream in continuous butter makers and often used in the manufacture of puff pastry products in cafes served as control samples. Typical samples of Russian-made butter produced by the method of converting high-fat cream were used as experimental samples. Based on the research results, differences in the fatty acid composition of the studied butter samples were established in terms of the content of lauric, myristic, palmitic and linoleic acids. It was revealed that in the range from 20 to 30 °, i. e., in conditions under which the dough rolling and proofing operations take place, the experimental butter samples were characterized by relatively higher levels of solid triglycerides and hardness. This caused a decrease in the plasticity of the butter and its ability to roll out. Based on comparative studies of the structural and mechanical properties of the butter, it was established that in order to improve its characteristics necessary for uniform rolling of the butter layer, it is advisable to lower the hardness value while simultaneously increasing the value of the butter structure recoverability. It has been concluded that such characteristics for butter produced by the method of convert- ing high-fat cream can be obtained by adjusting the composition of the butter and its production modes, and a decrease in the solid triglycerides can be achieved by active influence of the diet of animals in different periods of the year.

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During this study, the dried powder of Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) (AGM) was used as an excellent source of protein to produce nutritional biscuits. Physical, chemical, rheological and microbiological characteristics of biscuits with the optimum AGM percentage (5%) were evaluated compared to the control. The response surface methodology (RSM) with optimal (custom) design was first employed for optimizing the percentage of the AGM powder in biscuits. The optimum selected percentage of the AGM powder was 5% and a quadratic model was found to yield the best fit. The evaluation of parameters of biscuits (ash, protein, fiber and fat content) showed that most of the values, except carbohydrate, significantly increased with AGM inclusion (5%) compared to the control. Also, an increase in diameter, spread ratio and weight values and a decrease in the thickness and break strength of the biscuits were observed with AGM powder inclusion. The presence of the 5% AGM powder slightly increased water absorption, and dough development time also increased compared to the control sample. However, stability of dough decreased. The sanitary conditions of the AGM biscuits were satisfactory as the analytical results were within the established values specified in the regulation. The study revealed that Angoumois grain moth is an excellent source of nutrients necessary for combating protein-energy-malnutrition rampant in our world today.

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