Food systems

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The national peer reviewed journal “Food systems” is dedicated to the main problems of food science.

The main mission is to create, aggregate, support and distribute the scientific content in the field of the food industry, join the efforts of researchers from scientific centers and universities, bridge the gap between publications at the regional, national and federal levels. The journal “Food systems” serves to highlight topical problems in the food and related industries, promote new promising technologies among the wide audience of scientific and practical professionals, lecturers, students, postgraduate students and entrepreneurs. The scientific concept of the journal envisages publication of new knowledge in the field of food systems and scientific foundations of the resource saving technologies for deep processing of agricultural raw materials, breakthrough technical solutions for producing food of general and specialized purpose.

The journal “Food systems” publishes scientific and review papers, reports, communications, critical reviews, short scientific communications (letters to the editorial office), information materials concerned with

  • food technology and processes;
  • equipment and apparatus for food production;
  • nutritional hygiene;
  • biotechnology;
  • standardization, certification, quality and safety;
  • economics;
  • automation and informatization of technological processes.

The editors strive to expand the pool of writers and welcome new authors.

Article processing charges

All publication costs for the Journal are covered by V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.

The journal “Food systems” is included in the Russian index of scientific citation  and registered in the Scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.RU  and DOAJ

The journal has been published since 2018 with the publication frequency of four issues per year.

According to the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, the journal is included into the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Sciences and the degree of Doctor of Sciences should be published.


Authors of articles published in the Journal retain the copyright of their articles and are free to reproduce and disseminate their work. All articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC BY 4.0), which permits their use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

Open access

We follow the open access policy proclaimed by the Budapest Open Access Initiative to encourage knowledge sharing across the globe. For more information please read BOAI statement.

All articles published by the Journal are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers.

Every article accepted for publication in the Journal is assigned a DOI number (Digital Object Identifier).

Founder and publisher of the journal " Food systems " is the V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Journal is registered in the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Registration Certificate Number: PI № FC77-71610 of 13.11.2017; Online Media Registration Number: EL № FC 77-72022 of 26.12.2017).

Current issue

Vol 6, No 3 (2023)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)
272-278 162

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain to be the leading cause of death in the whole world. The structure of nutrition of the population and diet therapy are extremely important factors for prevention and treatment of CVDs. Results of the scientific research obtained over the last decade give new data on the role of certain micronutrients in the physiological processes and pathogenesis of these groups of diseases. The aim of this research was to study the current role of certain trace elements (magnesium, zinc and copper) in the pathogenesis of diseases, including assessment of the level of their intake in different countries. Furthermore, the review considers the necessity of creating new functional products to use in diet therapy for patients with cardiovascular diseases. It includes publications in Russian and English for the period of 2011 to 2022 from open databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, CyberLeninka, eLIBRARY as well as from open Internet sources. The research work carried out during preparation of this review was directed to studying the sphere of CVD prevention, role and relevance of the development of functional foods enriched with micronutrients. The data on the dysfunctions of the human body caused by the deficiency of zinc, copper and magnesium intake are presented. The current physiological daily norms for intake of these trace elements in different countries are given, and the dynamics of changes in the norms of intake over the last twenty years is shown. The review summarizes new data on the correlation between the risk of emergence of certain CVD types and the specific features of assimilation of the above-mentioned trace elements. The regulatory conditions acting on the RF territory for introducing trace elements into food products are analyzed. Based on the obtained results, conclusions were made regarding the relevance of the further development of functional foods that do not require changes in the traditional food behavior model.

279-282 339

Increased interest in the utilization of nutrition management of patients with phenylketonuria is clear. Applications include a small measured amount of phenylalanine given in the form of exchange food, phenylalanine-free protein substitute and low phenylalanine foods. In this article, the essential nutritional contents of low phenylalanine diets and the latest techniques and procedures used for creating several types of low phenylalanine diets from different food sources for persons with phenylketonuria are reviewed. The principles of these methods are described. Most of the techniques and procedures employed to remove Phe from the protein hydrolysate are based on the liberation of the amino acid using enzymatic hydrolysis. Free Phe is then removed via adsorption. Therefore, knowing the phenylalanine (Phe) content of foods as well as principles of procedures and techniques used for creating low Phe diets is very important for managing the diet of patients with phenylketonuria. Allowed foods and foods that should be avoided by persons with phenylketonuria are mentioned. Low Phe cereal based foods (i. e. toast bread, pasta, shamy bread, pan bread and rice) and dairy based foods are also considered. The US FDA regulation of aspartame labeling is also stated.

283-287 136

Enzootic bovine leukemia is an infectious disease with a chronic course caused by an RNA‑containing virus of the genus Deltaretrovirus. Despite the implementation of various programs for the elimination of leukemia, the disease is still widespread on the planet and continues to cause significant economic damage. A large proportion of BLV‑infected cattle remain to be asymptomatic carriers of the virus, which complicates diagnosis and contributes to the spread of the disease in the herd. The structure of the BLV genome is generally typical of retroviruses. It consists of genes encoding structural proteins, viral enzymes and regulatory elements flanked on both sides by identical long terminal repeats. The enzyme and structural protein coding genes (gag, pro, pol, and env) play a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus, influencing its infectivity and virion production. The tax and rex regulatory genes regulate viral transcription, export of transcripts from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and disease progression. The increase in the number of copies of proviral DNA occurs mainly not due to the functioning of the virus reverse transcriptase, but because of clonal reproduction of the affected subpopulations of B‑cells, mainly CD5+ IgM+. This feature provides increased genetic stability of the BLV virus. These properties of the viral genome allow the development of a variety of PCR test systems. The widespread implementation of such systems enables the detection of carriers of the disease at early stages, which should contribute to the effective implementation of national programs to eradicate bovine leukemia.

288-297 193

Sambal is a processed chili paste with a spicy taste. The history of sambal begins with the arrival of chili seeds brought by the Portuguese in the 16th century, which was like a cultural renaissance of spicy foods. The methodology used for this research included analysis of food ethnographic literature, origin, function and types of sambal found in relevant articles and book chapters. The results show that the population with the highest consumption of sambal lives on the Sumatra Islands. There are two types of sambal preparation methods, namely slicing and mashing. Some chili sauces can be cooked or eaten raw. Sambal diversity is influenced by several factors, namely resources, geographical factors, history, and culture. Thus, sambal is considered to be an important contributor to food diversity in Indonesia because every local cuisine includes sambal and it is never left behind.

298-307 122

Beet sugar production in Russia annually gives about 6 million tons of white sugar and 1.5 million tons of beet molasses, which must have technological adequacy, when used as raw materials. The purpose of the work was to substantiate the concept of technological adequacy of beet sugar production, its indicator markers and their threshold values, to assess the actual technological adequacy of white sugar and molasses, to verify the hypothesis about the relationship between individual indicators of white sugar and empirical knowledge about an increase in the content of micronutrients with a decrease in the category. The objects of the study were terminology related to the characteristics of food products and raw materials in terms of consumer expectations and indicators of their assessment. Technological adequacy was evaluated for 230 samples of white sugar and 134 samples of beet molasses. Indicator markers were determined according to standardized and known methods. Technological adequacy of white sugar and beet molasses is the compliance of their specific functional properties with the requirements of the production of a particular food product, in which they are raw ingredients. A measure of compliance is indicator markers in the form of physicochemical parameters of the composition. Indicators of white sugar for three food technologies and indicators of beet molasses for two technologies and storage were substantiated; their technological adequacy was assessed. Empirical knowledge about an increase in the content of micronutrients with a decrease in the category and the hypothesis about the relationship between individual indicators of white sugar were confirmed. It is shown that all white sugar of extra and TC1 categories has technological adequacy for the use in food production, while only 62% of TC2 sugar and some batches of beet molasses have the necessary technological suitability. The results obtained will be a tool for regulating the production of competitive products and developing a control scheme for the technological flow of sugar production.

308-316 131

Ice cream is a popular type of dairy foods containing up to 6% of lactose. In connection with the lactose intolerance by many consumers and the possibility of its crystallization during storage of finished products, there is a need for a decrease in the content of this nutrient in the composition of ice cream. The aim of the research was to study an effect of the lactose hydrolysis process in ice cream with the fat mass fraction of 15% and different mass fractions of dry skim milk residue on technologically significant and sensory properties of its quality. The main objects of the study were samples of ice cream subjected to lactose hydrolysis at the stage of mixture maturation. The fat mass fraction in the samples was 15%, mass fractions of dry skim milk residue were 7, 10, 12 and 15%. The composition of sugars was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, the dynamic viscosity of mixes and the consistency of ice cream by rheological methods and the dispersion of structural elements by microcopy. The effects of the mass fraction of dry skim milk residue and lactose hydrolysis on quality indicators of mixtures and ice cream were determined. As the mass fraction of dry skim milk residue rose from 7 to 15%, the residual content of lactose increased from 0.2 to 1.1%, while the dynamic viscosity of the mixture increased by 1.3 times. A decrease in the freezing point by 0.6–0.8 °C and an increase in melting resistance were also observed. The mass fraction of melt after 2 hours of holding decreased to 4.7–0.7%. Also, indicators of consistency (hardness, adhesiveness, adhesion force and rigidity) decreased by 1.1–1.7 times (upon a mass fraction of dry skim milk residue of 7 and 10%). The samples of ice cream subjected to lactose hydrolysis were characterized by a high dispersion of structural elements typical for a traditional product, and by improved texture and increased sensation of sweetness. The complex of investigations to study quality indicators of ice cream with the fat mass fraction of 15% showed that a change in the mass fraction of dry skim milk residue upon enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose results in formation of different structural-mechanical and sensory indicators that should be considered during the creation of assortment and development of formulations of low-lactose products.

317-328 116

The physicochemical properties and structural features of proteins of concentrates (PC) from white and brown rice are described. Differences in a degree of proteolysis and the relationship between the functional and technological properties of proteins and their structure were established. Proteins from white rice had lower molecular weights (MW) than proteins from brown rice: 1.3–199.5 kDa versus 1.5–251.1 kDa. Most proteins were grouped in three low-molecular-weight fractions (МW 11.7–27.5 kDa) in PC from white rice and in one fraction with the high molecular weight (182–251.1 kDa) in PC from brown rice. In the process of hydrolysis, the MW of proteins (high-molecular-weight) of PC from white rice decreased from 199.5 to 120.2 kDa with generation of peptides with a molecular weight of <1.3 kDa, while the MW remained unchanged upon hydrolysis of proteins of PC from brown rice. In the composition of PC from white rice, flavonoids interacted with protein fractions with molecular weights of 131, 10, and 4.0 kDa; while in PC from brown rice, they interacted with only one fraction with a molecular weight of 216 kDa. The quantity of flavonoids in PC from white rice was 2.3 times less than that in PC from brown rice. Elements of protein secondary structure were established for PC: α–helix, 310 — helix, β-structure, β-bends, and irregular shape. Proteolysis of proteins was accompanied by a decrease in the number of α-helices, increase in the proportion of β-structures and irregular regions, weakening of the hydrophobic properties of proteins and an increase in the number of S–S bonds; PC from brown rice was characterized by a higher content of –СН2  groups from the flavonoid family, as well as by a higher degree of unsaturation of groups of benzene nuclei, ketone and ester groups. A negative correlation was found between the foaming ability of PC and the upper boundaries of molecular weights (r = — 0.95), quantity of high-molecular weight proteins (r = — 0.80) and aggregation constants, and a positive correlation (r = + 0.8) with the number of S–S bonds. The high foaming ability is interrelated with proteins with a molecular weight of no more than 120 kDa. The results are intended to regulate the functional properties of protein products based on the characteristics of the physicochemical properties of native and modified proteins.

329-336 108

Currently, Russia occupies a leading position in the world in terms of mineral water reserves and the production of packaged mineral drinking water based on them. Identification of food products is one of the modern problems of mankind, which fully applies to packaged mineral water. The article discusses the relevance of developing methodological approaches to the choice of identification indicators of packaged mineral waters. Packaged mineral waters are not only recognized as a food product, but also are a valuable natural balneotherapeutic resource that has a therapeutic and prophylactic effect on the human body. In this regard, the most important task is to develop scientifically based principles and algorithms for determining the geographical origin and authenticity of packaged mineral waters. Currently, the area of traditionally normed indicators of the quality and safety of mineral waters does not imply the possibility of unambiguous identification of products by geographical, natural, and other characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicochemical parameters and isotopic characteristics of the mineral water “Nagutskaya — 4” to develop a set of identification indicators. Water quality and compliance with established standards were assessed by organoleptic (transparency, color, taste and smell) and physicochemical (basic composition, mineralization, biologically active components, microcomponents) parameters. Analytical studies of the isotopic characteristics of water were carried out on a Delta V Advantage isotope mass spectrometer with a GasBench II modular set-top box. A list of indicators for the identification of mineral water “Nagutskaya — 4” is proposed, in which, in addition to the main indicators, it is recommended to include fluorides, toxic metals (lithium, strontium, barium) and biologically active components (iodine and bromine), which are typical for this group of waters. It was from the well of the Nagutskoye deposit that packaged water was sold under the brand name “Essentuki No. 4” in the recent past. Therefore, a comparative assessment of the identification indicators of the mineral medicinal table waters “Nagutskaya‑4” and “Essentuki No. 4” was carried out. The results of the assessment showed statistical differences both in the main identification indicators (basic composition, mineralization, biologically active components) and in additional ones (trace components and isotopic characteristics).

337-341 111

Algeria is the ninth biggest producer of olive oil in the world and the fourth biggest producer of table olives. In 2023, 868,754 tons of this product were produced there. The paper examines the regional and climatic special features of olive oil (OO) production with detalization by this product grown in Algeria. The fatty acid composition of OO produced in various regions of the country was studied in comparison with oil from Spain and Italy. The positive effect of diets and medicines based on OO is described. The prospects of the development of target products based on protein-fat modules with the use of OO from certain Algerian regions are indicated.

342-349 107

Confectionery products with the foamy structure such as pastila and zefir (Russian marshmallow-like confectioneries) are in demand among various consumer groups. The expansion of the range and sales markets requires ensuring quality of such products during their transportation, storage, as well as increasing their shelf life. The patterns of change in quality indicators allow establishing additional requirements for them to improve storability of such products. Moisture transfer processes are predominant during storage of confectionery products with the foamy structure and define their hardening or moistening. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of various factors on quality indicators during storage of zefir. Studies have been carried out to determine the influence of various structure-forming agents, such as agar, pectin, gelatin, on the direction and rate of moisture transfer processes during storage of zefir samples. The possibility of using the method of infrared spectroscopy for assessing quality of structure-forming agents during incoming inspection is shown. The mass fraction of moisture in zefir made using agar decreased by 3.5% after 10 weeks of storage at a temperature of 18°C. During this period, the mass fraction of moisture in zefir made using pectin as a structure-forming agent decreased by 2.5%, while in zefir prepared on the basis of gelatin, the mass fraction of moisture decreased only by 1.2%. Thus, the addition of gelatin makes it possible to reduce the rate of moisture transfer by approximately 2–3 times. The low moisture transfer rate of zefir is due to the water-holding properties of the protein structure of gelatin. Diffusion coefficients were calculated to predict the rate of moisture transfer processes in zefir samples made using various structure-forming agents and stored at different temperatures. The lowest diffusion coefficient was determined in zefir made with the addition of pectin, while the highest diffusion coefficient was in the sample based on gelatin. However, zefir made from gelatin had the lowest actual moisture transfer rate, since the gradient of the water activity was minimal (7.6%). With an increase in the storage temperature of zefir made with the addition of various structure-forming agents from 18°C to 28°C, the rate of moisture transfer increased. In zefir produced on the basis of agar, this indicator increased by 2.7 times, in the sample from pectin by 3.0 times; in zefir based on gelatin by only 1.5 times. The results obtained make it possible to predict the risks of changes in zefir quality during storage.

350-357 133

H-NMR spectroscopy was used to study the metabolic profile of Atlantic salmon muscle tissue during heat treatment and storage to assess the taste of products. It has been established that when steaming fish, the amount of compounds such as trimethylamine (TMA), taurine (Tau), glutamic acid (Glu), lysine (Lys), proline (Pro), serine (Ser), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), creatinine (Cret) increased in broth compared to raw fish, and Tau and Cret accumulated in cooked fish. The content of TMA, which gives a fishy smell to the product, increased dramatically in cooked fish, regardless of the cooking duration, and at the same time an increase in dimethylamine (DMA) was observed in cooked fish. The processing of the data array of the content of metabolites by the method of principal components was carried out and a clear separation of fish and broth samples was revealed, as well as the difference between fish stored for a long time and the original sample. The taste qualities of fish raw materials before and after heat treatment were evaluated using the taste active value (TAV) of the main compounds characterizing sweet, bitter, sour tastes, as well as umami taste. The values of the taste threshold of compounds, which are widely used for a comprehensive assessment of various food products, were taken for calculations. The TAV for the broth when steaming Atlantic salmon for 30 min was 6.27 ± 0.06, and with an increase in time to 60 min, it decreased to 5.61 ± 0.09. During long-term storage of fish, there was a sharp decrease in the umami taste index and an increase in bitter taste, which is due to hydrolytic processes occurring during product spoilage. It is concluded that the NMR spectroscopy method makes it possible to quantify the change in the main metabolites in Atlantic salmon samples during heat treatment and storage, and TAV calculated from the content of free amino acids, nucleotides and organic acids provides an objective description of the taste of the product.

358-364 147

Flaxseed consumption has been prioritized by health-conscious people all over the world. Its consumption raises interest to it both from a personal and an industrial prospect due to its remarkable fatty acids profile. Besides its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, flaxseed oil is known for its low omega 6/omega 3 ratio, which may possess health improving properties because this oil is precursor of anti-inflammatory molecules. However, the high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in flaxseed oil causes its high sensitivity to high temperatures, to light and to oxygen, which may lead to its oxidation and quality degradation. Screw pressing can produce high quality oil but in lesser volume, which could be disadvantage. Therefore, the extraction process must be optimized for maximizing oil recovery, while maintaining oxidation indicators within limits specified by regulations, as well as a potentially health beneficial fatty acid profile. Optimization of screw press parameters for pressing out the flaxseed oil were investigated by Response Surface Methodology. Both size of the cake outlet and the speed of the screw pressing were optimized, and the values that provided the highest experimental oil recovery, 41.4%, were of 1 mm and 155.89 rpm respectively. Although the overall trend in oil extraction showed a rising oil recovery when screw speeds increased from 98.73 up to 213.05 rpm, certain fluctuations were observed in oil extraction with varying outlet cake sizes. However, there was an inversely-proportional function between the oil recovery and the size of the cake outlet, therefore, screw speed provided a minor, non-significant effect while the size of the cake outlet proved to have a strong effect on oil recovery. The highest acid value and peroxide value accounted to 0.71 mg KOH/g and to 7.71 meq/kg respectively. Sediment content (SC) of screw pressed flax oil ranged between 9.12~14%. During the oil extraction at the maximum yield, temperature increased, however the ratio of omega 6 to omega 3 in the obtained oil still remained low.

365-389 244

Oscillatoxins (OTXs) are cytotoxins produced by some marine cyanobacteria. Their unique structures show a great potency as an anticancer agent. The limited availability of OTX derivatives in nature provides little information about their biological activity. Some of OTX activities have been tested in the in vitro or in vivo studies toward cancer cell lines, but their exact mechanism of action on the target is unclear. In this study, we used the network pharmacology analysis method to predict the target and mechanism of action of oscillatoxin D (OTX-D), 30 methyl oscillatoxin D (30-methyl-OTX-D), oscillatoxin E (OTX-E), and oscillatoxin F (OTX-F). There are 20 possible targets of the four compounds toward cancer, and the main targets of them are PIK3CA, CDK1, and MTOR. This was also followed by the molecular docking study to understand the interaction between the four compounds and their targets. Molecular docking showed that the four compounds interacted well with the key targets. In this study, four derivatives of OTXs and their three key targets for the anticancer action were revealed suggesting multiple signaling pathways, including PD-L1 expression and PD‑1 checkpoint pathway in cancer, proteoglycans in cancer, and pathways in cancer, establishing a theoretical framework for the further experimental study.

390-396 150

Authors emphasize that food in the modern world is becoming less accessible due to the present global economic, geopolitical and climatic situation. At the same time a large share of food produced in the world goes to waste. It means that there is a need to implement tools that could provide people with access to food and reduce amount of food waste. Food sharing, a novel tool of collaborative food consumption, can be used to solve this problem. The paper introduces the concept of distributive food sharing and describes its different types. A description of the present state of distributive food sharing in Russia. We state that the environment for development of distributive food sharing in Russia is not favorable. The main conclusion of the article is the need to create conditions for the development of the concept of food sharing to provide those in need with food and minimize waste.

397-402 144

The use of insects as an alternative protein source is considered a promising strategy for the agricultural development that facilitates solution to the problem of feeding the world’s population. Introduction of insects as a raw material resource into the existing food systems allows enriching products with valuable nutrients and improving their quality characteristics. The review aims at assessment of the world regulatory normative base, analysis of the risks linked with consumption of the new type of foods containing processed insects and determination of promising and profitable directions for sales markets. The paper considers Russian and European technical documentation related to food production and safety, presents traditional methods for processing of entomological biomass to produce semi-finished products from insects, shows specific features of enrichment of certain food products with insect meal and describes changes in the technological parameters improved as a result of these manipulations. Despite the world trend toward inclusion of alternative food resources into human diets, popularity of products from insects in Russia largely depends on public awareness about benefits and taste of such products, public confidence in their safety and support from the government and business. Among advantages of edible insects is their growing in the areas of compact settlement without specific requirements for volumes of land and water resources, as well as their ability to process secondary resources that are not used in human nutrition. However, to realize such an ambitious plan on revision of human food habits, more accurate and reliable studies of control methods and prevention of adulteration of products with insects are necessary.

403-408 118

The study aimed to produce nutritionally enhanced ice cream by adding sprouted soybean (SSB) and sesame hulls (SH) at different concentrations to partially replace skimmed milk powder (SMP). The physicochemical, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AOA), and sensory acceptability of ice cream fortified with SSB or SH were evaluated. The ice cream containing 15% SSB was found to have the best sensory characteristics and was most preferred by the taste panel. The addition of 15% SSB increased the protein and fiber content and improved melting resistance, while the addition of 15% SH resulted in a greater increase in dietary fiber but lower protein content and melting resistance. The highest overrun on the cost was obtained in the sample fortified with 25% SSB compared to the lowest in the sample fortified with 25% SH, but panelists generally did not like these samples in terms of taste-flavor. The study concluded that the addition of SSB and SH to replace SMP in ice cream can create a nutritious and low-cost product with similar physicochemical properties and acceptance to the control.

409-415 100

The need to develop identification criteria for fruit brandy is connected with the prevention of the sale of counterfeit products on the Russian alcohol market. Due to the variety of factors affecting the final product, the solution to this problem requires the use of a methodology based on an integrated approach. The work is devoted to its first stage — the assessment of the influence of the biochemical composition of fruit stone raw materials, as well as various technological factors on the formation of essential (identification) characteristics of products. Fresh fruits of apricots, cherry plums, cherries, dogwood and plums, as well as samples of fermented raw materials were used as objects of research. The biochemical composition of fresh fruits was assessed by the content of sugars, free organic acids, amino acids and pectin substances. It has been found that the values of all main indicators of the biochemical composition varied widely in the samples of initial raw materials. At the same time, significant differences were noted between the types of fruit raw materials in the content of free amino acids (dogwood, cherry plum up to 0.08% and 0.12%, respectively; cherry, plum and apricot up to 0.19–0.30%) and pectin substances (cherry, apricot up to 0.6–0.8%; cherry plum, dogwood, plum up to 1.2–1.3%). The following factors were studied in the work as technological factors: a method of primary processing of raw materials (obtaining pulp or juice extraction); a maceration method — without enzyme preparations and with treatment with enzyme preparations; a fermentation method — without fermentation activators and using fermentation activators. It has been established that the method for primary processing of raw materials affects the concentration of methanol, esters and higher alcohols in fermented raw materials. The use of fermentation activators contributes to an increase in the concentration of higher alcohols and esters in them by almost 2 times, and the use of individual complex enzyme preparations — by 16% and 80%, respectively. It has been shown that the methodology for developing identification criteria for fruit vodkas at the first stage should include an assessment of the physico-chemical composition of initial raw materials and individual technological factors at the stage of preparing them for distillation.

416-423 101

The paper presents the results of studying sensory, physico-chemical, structural-mechanical (rheological) and biochemical indicators as well as functional properties of natural cheeses of various type groups for a possibility of using as a main raw material to produce pizza. Cheeses were produced in the research-and-development shop of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking (VNIIMS) and purchased in the retail chain. Sensory indicators (taste and odor, consistency, appearance) and functional properties (shreddability, meltability, blistering, free oil release, browning, stretchability) of cheeses from various groups were assessed by 100-point scale for assessing cheeses for pizza developed in VNIIMS. Shreddability was determined before baking by grinding a cheese sample chilled to a temperature of 4 ± 2 °C using a kitchen food grinder. Cheeses were baked at a temperature of 200 ± 5 °C for 12 min. Meltability was determined by changes in the cheese diameter after high-temperature treatment and stretchability by the “fork test”. It has been found that physico-chemical, structural-mechanical and biochemical indicators of cheeses used as a raw material affected sensory characteristics and functional properties of the final product after baking. The correlation between the fat content, protein mass fraction and active acidity of cheeses and functional properties such as meltability, free oil release, stretchability and shreddability was confirmed with statistical significance. The highest correlation was noted between shreddability, mass fraction of total protein and consistency (correlation coefficients were 0.74 and 0.76, respectively). However, none of the studied cheese types corresponded to the full extent to the targeted functional properties. To produce pizza, it is preferable to use cheeses with cheddaring and thermal-mechanical processing of cheese mass as well as unripened semihard cheeses with low temperature of the second heating that are molded from a layer, and semihard cheeses with high temperature of the second heating.

424-430 121

The article presents the results of a study of frozen cream, the purpose of which was to assess the feasibility of using various freezing and storage modes to obtain a product with a stable fat phase. The objects of the study were cream samples of various fat contents (30%, 40% and 50%). Freezing was carried out at three temperature conditions (–50 °C, —25 °C and –18 °C) followed by storage for 4 months in refrigerators maintaining temperatures of –18 °C, —25 °C and –50 °C. Before and after low-temperature treatment, the state of the fat phase of the cream and the size of ice crystals were assessed using a microscopic method. Destabilization of fat dispersion was determined by the content of destabilized fat. It has been confirmed that with increasing mass fraction of fat in cream, the degree of destabilization increases. The amount of destabilized fat in cream samples with 30, 40 and 50% fat content before freezing was 14.3%, 20.0% and 32.0%, respectively. According to the research results, it has been revealed that when the freezing temperature decreases from –18 °C to –50 °C, there is no noticeable reduction in the amount of destabilized fat. The degree of destabilization decreased when cream was moved from lower to more gentle temperature conditions. At a storage temperature of –18 °C for cream previously frozen at –50 °C and –25 °C, the amount of destabilized fat in the cream was lower by 8.0–14.0% and 20.0–25.0%, respectively, in comparison with samples frozen and stored at the same temperature. When conducting microstructural studies, it has been revealed that freezing at a lower temperature with a change in storage temperature allows obtaining ice crystals with a smoother surface, which cause less damage to the membranes of fat globules.

431-436 85

Collection wines are a special category of winemaking products, which acquire their unique characteristics during aging. One of the first wine collections in Russia was created in 1833–1835 in the Magarach state establishment, which is now the AllRussian National Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking “Magarach”. The large part of the Magarach collection consists of strong wines. These wines were produced by introducing alcohol of different nature (grape, grain, molasses), which was conditioned by the requirements of the legislation that was in force at the moment of production. It was interesting to find out the nature of alcohol that was used for wine alcoholization in the preceding decades. To this end, the method of isotope mass spectrometry was used. In addition, it was necessary to establish whether the values of isotopic characteristics of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen of ethanol of grape origin have changed over the last decades. The objects of the research were 15 samples of Crimean collection wines, one of which was dry wine of the 1982 harvest and 14 strong wines were from harvests of the last century with the oldest wine made from grape of the 1937 harvest. The composition of the stable carbon isotopes of ethanol in the samples was determined using the analytical complex Delta V Advantage. It has been found that the dry wine of 1982 harvest was produced without adding alcohol. Although the age of the drink is more than 40 years, the values of the isotopic characteristics of the elements of ethanol are typical for the modern products made exclusively from grape. Thus, the isotopic characteristics of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen of sugars of grape berry did not change significantly over the studied period. When analyzing strong wines, it has been established that the values of the isotopic characteristics of carbon were in a range of –27.23‰ to –24.13‰ (except one sample with a value of –15.49‰); the corresponding values for oxygen were from 7.21‰ to 17.09‰ and for hydrogen from –270‰ to –216‰. Therefore, for most studied samples, the obtained values of isotopic characteristics of the elements of ethanol were typical precisely for the mixture of grape and grain alcohols.

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