Food systems

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The national peer reviewed journal “Food systems” is dedicated to the main problems of food science.

The main mission is to create, aggregate, support and distribute the scientific content in the field of the food industry, join the efforts of researchers from scientific centers and universities, bridge the gap between publications at the regional, national and federal levels. The journal “Food systems” serves to highlight topical problems in the food and related industries, promote new promising technologies among the wide audience of scientific and practical professionals, lecturers, students, postgraduate students and entrepreneurs. The scientific concept of the journal envisages publication of new knowledge in the field of food systems and scientific foundations of the resource saving technologies for deep processing of agricultural raw materials, breakthrough technical solutions for producing food of general and specialized purpose.

The journal “Food systems” publishes scientific and review papers, reports, communications, critical reviews, short scientific communications (letters to the editorial office), information materials concerned with

  • food technology and processes;
  • equipment and apparatus for food production;
  • nutritional hygiene;
  • biotechnology;
  • standardization, certification, quality and safety;
  • economics;
  • automation and informatization of technological processes.

The editors strive to expand the pool of writers and welcome new authors.

Article processing charges

All publication costs for the Journal are covered by V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.


Authors of articles published in the Journal retain the copyright of their articles and are free to reproduce and disseminate their work. All articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC BY 4.0), which permits their use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

Open access

We follow the open access policy proclaimed by the Budapest Open Access Initiative to encourage knowledge sharing across the globe. For more information please read BOAI statement.

All articles published by the Journal are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers.

Every article accepted for publication in the Journal is assigned a DOI number (Digital Object Identifier).

The Journal is registered in the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Registration Certificate Number: PI № FC77-71610 of 13.11.2017; Online Media Registration Number: EL № FC 77-72022 of 26.12.2017).

Current issue

Vol 5, No 1 (2022)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)
4-9 123

A distillate is a basis for the blend of a spirit drink. Distillate ripening is necessary to stabilize the physicochemical composition and achieve certain flavor characteristics. Softened water is the second ingredient of the spirit drink blend in terms of volume. The mineral composition of water influences the consumer properties of a drink. The aim of this work is to reveal factors that influence quality indicators of a spirit drink from a new type of a raw material. The objects of the research were the samples of the distillate from baking waste, commercial batches of softened water and experimental blends of a spirit drink. The authors determined the volume fraction of ethanol, organoleptic characteristics and mass concentration of the main volatile components by the gas chromatography method in the objects of the research. It was established that upon distillate ripening, the most intensive oxidative processes occured in a period of 10 to 20 days. This led to an increase in the acetaldehyde concentration by 6–27% depending of a raw material type. At the same time, an increase in the mass concentration of ethyl acetate by 15 to 30%, as well as the total concentration of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate by 27–38% was observed. An effect of the strength of the spirit drink on its organoleptic characteristics was revealed. The mineral composition of the soften water samples prepared by the method of ion exchange and reverse osmosis was studied. Based on the analysis of the taste and aroma profiles of spirit drinks, an effect of the concentration and ratio of mineral salts in water on product quality characteristics was shown. The authors recommend the optimal duration of distillate ripening before blending — not more than 20 days, the blend strength 40–42% vol. The necessity to use soften water prepared by the method of ion exchange or reverse osmosis with the controlled content of ions of calcium (not more than 9 mg/dm3), sodium (not more than 60 mg/dm3), sulfates (not more than 65 mg/dm3) and hydrogen carbonates (not more than 80 mg/dm3) for blending was substantiated.

10-13 87

This paper reports on preliminary qualitative evaluation of relationship between color change and water activity (aw) of date (Phoenix dactylifera L., var. Mech-Degla) fruit tablets (DFTs) as natural supplement, in view to optimize their storage conditions. Eight types of DFTs were obtained, according to: i) mean particle size (225 and 282 μm) of the used fruit powder, and ii) compression pressure (5, 10, 15 and 20 kN) applied during the tableting process. The experimental adsorption curves, determined at 25°C using static-gravimetric method, were fitted to GAB (Guggenheim–Anderson–de Boer) and BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) models. Results showed that the DFT color is significantly sensitive to aw since beyond the aw threshold value of 0.44, the DFT color changes from light grey to dark brown, independently of the particle size of fruit powder and compression pressure. Concerning the isotherm modeling, the both models tested seem especially suitable (R≈0,96 0.3≤MRE≤5 and SE≈0.03) for describing the experimental data for DFT obtained under a compression pressure of 5 kN from date fruit powder with mean particle size of 225 μm. The DFT color stability is considerably influenced by the environmental humidity. Considering the importance of color for consumer acceptance, the study deserves to be deepened concerning the quantitative analysis of the color (CIELab system), packaging of the tablets, etc.

14-22 100

The study of food products is the most important method for creating proves of their food safety based on generally accepted scientific ideas and current international and national legal norms of food safety. At the stage of laboratory research it is possible to objectively prove the efficiency and safety of new types of food products while their consumption according to certain health indications among the relevant group of people, including staff working in hazardous industrial environment. In the Russian Federation the procedure for assessing the safety and running the laboratory tests of food products are regulated by the Federal Laws on the Quality and Safety of Food Products, regulations on provision of public catering services, methodological recommendations for assessing the risk to public health in case of exposure to microbial factors contained in food products, as well as technical regulations of the Customs Union on food safety. The authors have developed regulatory and technical documentation for the cereal product “Cereal bar” and presented data on its safety when consumed. Conclusions about the product are made on the basis of a study of its chronic toxicity. It has been established that the ingredients composition of the cereal bar, included in the diet of laboratory animals, provided a positive effect on their body condition, weight gain and did not cause abnormal changes in the volume of internal organs and the development of pathologies that could indicate a side effect of the product. During study of the hematological and biochemical parameters, no significant differences were found between the data of the control group and experimental group of the animals. The conducted studies of the cereal product “Cereal bar” confirm the absence of a potential risk of developing chronic toxicity in case of introduction of the cereal bar to the animals’ diets and its consumption over a long period of time.

23-29 130

This article reviews the currently existing schemes of 3D printers assigned for printing with edible components. The main types of extruders used for printing with food mixtures are considered in the article. Promising components are described, which serve as a base for creating the mixtures for 3D food printing. Examples of the successful application of 3D printing to create food products are given. The concept of 4D printing is considered.

30-40 106

The article provides an analysis of published works devoted to authentication of the place of origin of coffee beans, as well as the research of the main components that can be identification parameters when authenticating coffee. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, the authors noted the most significant works aimed at confirming the authenticity of the place of origin for coffee beans from Ethiopia, Kenya, Hawaii, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico and other countries. It was shown that the most widespread studies were aimed at analyzing the values of isotopic ratios of carbon (13C/12C), hydrogen (2H/1H), oxygen (18O/16O) and nitrogen (15N/14N) in compounds contained in coffee beans, which reflect the distribution of “light” and “heavy” isotopes during biological and geochemical processes within the boundaries of a particular region. The authors analyzed the works aimed at studying the qualitative and quantitative composition of trace elements and rare earth metals (Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Ga, Rb, Ba, Pb, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Nd, Eu, Dy, Gd and others), as well as the research of the values of isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in product samples and soils of the studied region. Based on the presented materials, it is concluded that the use of the isotope mass spectrometry method in combination with statistical processing of the results makes it possible to determine with a high degree of reliability the product belonging to a certain geographical region, as well as to authenticate the botanical origin of the beans. The advantages of comprehensive research of several indicators using various methods of mathematical statistics and modeling in determining the geographical place of coffee origin are shown.

41-46 92

The biomarkers of the subchronic toxicity of binary mixtures of food additives sorbic acid and aspartame in concentrations of 50, 100 mg/l and 500, 1000 mg/l, respectively, were studied using plant biotests. A comparative analysis of the indicators such as biomass gain, a level of production of the oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), and dynamics of accumulation of proliferative and cytogenetic disorders was carried out after incubation of Allium cepa roots in the aqueous solutions of these compounds. A significant delay in the root growth (more than 60%) was observed in the combinations of sorbic acid and aspartame of 50/1000 and 100/500 mg/l compared to the control. However, significant differences in the effects on root mass gain were not revealed after analysis of the results of treatment with additives individually and with their mixture. It was found that upon treatment with the mixture of additives, only sorbic acid influenced root mass gain, while the interaction of these compounds was insignificant. An effect of the combined impact of sorbic acid and aspartame on the proliferative activity of meristem cells was more negative than upon treatment in the mono-mode in the similar concentrations. This indicator was affected by both sorbic acid and aspartame; however, the preserving agent again played the leading role. Moreover, the level of proliferation also depended on the effect of the interaction between these additives. The antagonistic effect in regard to the indicator of the oxidative stress was not recorded when treating with the mixture of these additives; although, the MDA level in roots increased more than twice upon individual treatment with sorbic acid, while aspartame, on the contrary, reduced its level by half. The obtained results can be used to monitor and predict early consequences of effects of combinations of sorbic acid and aspartame in the food composition.

47-54 84

The ratio of the milk-clotting activity (MCA) and proteolytic activity (PA) was compared for milk-clotting enzyme preparations (MEP) based on recombinant chymosin, chymosin of animal origin and microbial origin. The MCA value was measured in the international milk-clotting units (IMCU), the PA value was determined by the Anson method on the substrate from hemoglobin at 30 °C and рН 5.3. It was found that recombinant chymosins had the highest level of MCA/ PA: the group with MCA/ PA < ~1000 includes MEPs Chy-max® Extra 2235 Powder, Chy-max® Extra 600 Liquid and Renifer® 1800; the group with ~1000 < MCA/ PA < 1400 includes Chy-max® M 1000, Maxiren® 1800 and Chymax® Extra 2235 Powder; the group with MCA/ PA > 3500 includes MEP Chy-max® Supreme 1000. MEPs of animal origin had a lower indicator of MCA/ PA compared to recombinant chymosins, which for different trademarks of MEPs with different ratios of%chymosin to%pepsin was equal to: Naturen® Extra 220 (95/5) = 199.7 ± 8.0; rennet SF “Extra” (90/10) = 122.1 ±1.9; Kalase® 150 (80/20) = 115.1 ± 0.7; Naturen® Stamix (50/50) = 86.2 ± 0.2; rennet FS10 “Bovine pepsin” (10/90) = 38.7 ± 1.8. MEP of microbial origin had the lowest level of MCA/ PA among all three types of MEPs under study. MCA/ PA for different trademarks of MEPs of microbial origin was as follows: Meito® Microbial Rennet = 36.35 ± 0.48; Marzyme® 2200 MT = 31.03 ± 0.13; Fromase® 2200 TL = 18.57 ± 0.13; Fromase® 750 XLG = 16.06 ± 0.49.

55-63 152

The purpose of this study is a comparative analysis of the factors affecting the differentiation of wage rates in Russia and the United States. The information base for the study was statistical and analytical materials given on the official websites of the Russian Federation and the United States. The article presents an extensive analysis of the wage levels depending on the professional training of employees. Based on statistical data, the authors substantiate why in Russia and the United States the wages of employees with higher professional education are significantly higher than the wages of employees with secondary education, not to mention employees without secondary education. Much attention is paid to the consideration of the differentiation of wage levels with respect to the type of the economic activity. It is shown that in Russia and the United States, despite significant differences in the structure of the economy and economic potentials, the highest earnings prevail in the extractive industries, primarily in the fuel and energy complex. On the other hand, wages in the light and food industries, as well as in agriculture in Russia and the United States are about 20 and 33% of the above-mentioned industries, respectively. The article also examines the differentiation of wages in relation to racial characteristics and gender differences. Citing a number of factual data from Russia and the United States, the authors show that such differentiation in the 21st century should be qualified in terms of labor market imperfections from both scientific and social points of view. The regional aspect of the wage difference in both countries is also analyzed in detail. It is explained why the regional factor has almost no effect on the size of the average wage in the United States contrary to Russia. It is concluded that the most effective mechanism for regulating wage levels is competition in the labor market, which puts the qualifications, skills and experience of employees, as well as working conditions, as the basis for wage differentiation.

64-69 110

In this paper, the questions of the foamy structure formation in zephyr are considered. Regularities of the influence of recipe components on the foam structure are revealed. The effect of egg white, pectin, white sugar, applesauce and other recipe components on the physicochemical and rheological properties of the foam mass used to produce zephyr has been studied. The addition of pectin leads to an increase in the elastic-plastic properties of the foam mass, and the addition of white sugar leads to an increase in its foaming ability. Recipe components form the foamy structure of the zephyr. The choice of apple pectin allows one to control the density of the zephyr mass and the water activity of the foamy masses. When 0.075% apple pectin is added to a 1% egg white solution, the foaming ability decreases from 190% to 104%, and the foam stability remains practically unchanged. The addition of applesauce, syrup, citric acid and other recipe components to such a foamy mass leads to a slight decrease in the foaming ability, while its stability increases significantly up to 80%, i. e., almost twice. The resulting foamy structure of the zephyr mass is characterized by high physicochemical, organoleptic and rheological parameters, which makes it possible to obtain high quality confectionery products of a given shape.

70-76 206

Edible insects are a promising product for the Russian food market. This is due to their high nutritional value, the presence of essential amino acids, useful omega‑3 and omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The balanced content of macro- and microelements in the composition of such a product allows us to talk about its potential benefits for human health. However, at present there is no reliable information about the attitude of Russian citizens to eating insects. The adult population has a more traditional view of nutrition, preferring proven types of food in their consumer basket. As a result of the study, it was found that women are 50% more likely to express concerns about the safety of edible insects compared to men and, in general, are more negatively disposed towards entomophagy (edible insects and products made from them). On the other hand, men are more likely to assume that the population is not ready to try insect foods because people are not sure of their safety. From the point of view of women, consumers are concerned about the lack of available scientific information on this topic and consider this issue to be insufficiently studied. Among all respondents, 80% answered that a TV report on the health benefits of edible insects would not change their attitude towards entomophagy. Moreover, 44% of respondents consider it inexpedient to open production facilities for edible insects in Russia. This judgment is consistent with their opinion about the low safety of food from insects. Women were twice as likely to respond negatively to the question about permitting the production of edible insects in Russia compared to men.

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