Food systems

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The national peer reviewed journal “Food systems” is dedicated to the main problems of food science.

The main mission is to create, aggregate, support and distribute the scientific content in the field of the food industry, join the efforts of researchers from scientific centers and universities, bridge the gap between publications at the regional, national and federal levels. The journal “Food systems” serves to highlight topical problems in the food and related industries, promote new promising technologies among the wide audience of scientific and practical professionals, lecturers, students, postgraduate students and entrepreneurs. The scientific concept of the journal envisages publication of new knowledge in the field of food systems and scientific foundations of the resource saving technologies for deep processing of agricultural raw materials, breakthrough technical solutions for producing food of general and specialized purpose.

The journal “Food systems” publishes scientific and review papers, reports, communications, critical reviews, short scientific communications (letters to the editorial office), information materials concerned with

  • food technology and processes;
  • equipment and apparatus for food production;
  • nutritional hygiene;
  • biotechnology;
  • standardization, certification, quality and safety;
  • economics;
  • automation and informatization of technological processes.

The editors strive to expand the pool of writers and welcome new authors.

Article processing charges

All publication costs for the Journal are covered by V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of Russian Academy of Sciences, so authors do not need to pay an article processing charge.

The journal “Food systems” is included in the Russian index of scientific citation  and registered in the Scientific electronic library eLIBRARY.RU  and DOAJ

The journal has been published since 2018 with the publication frequency of four issues per year.

According to the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation, the journal is included into the List of peer-reviewed scientific publications, in which the main scientific results of dissertations for the degree of Candidate of Sciences and the degree of Doctor of Sciences should be published.


Authors of articles published in the Journal retain the copyright of their articles and are free to reproduce and disseminate their work. All articles are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC BY 4.0), which permits their use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.

Open access

We follow the open access policy proclaimed by the Budapest Open Access Initiative to encourage knowledge sharing across the globe. For more information please read BOAI statement.

All articles published by the Journal are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication, without subscription charges or registration barriers.

Every article accepted for publication in the Journal is assigned a DOI number (Digital Object Identifier).

Founder and publisher of the journal " Food systems " is the V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems of the Russian Academy of Sciences

The Journal is registered in the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media (Registration Certificate Number: PI № FC77-71610 of 13.11.2017; Online Media Registration Number: EL № FC 77-72022 of 26.12.2017).

Current issue

Vol 6, No 2 (2023)
View or download the full issue PDF (Russian)
130-138 201

The shelf life of sparkling wine is an indicator that can vary depending on the impact of a large number of external factors on the product. These factors include transportation conditions, storage temperature, humidity, exposure to light, and packaging quality. The current regulatory documentation regulates certain requirements for the storage conditions of sparkling wines, but they are often violated during transportation and storage, which leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of products. This review is devoted to the study of changes in the quality characteristics of wines during their storage and transportation. It is shown that the intensity of physicochemical changes occurring in wine during storage depends on temperature conditions, the presence of vibration and exposure to light. The issue of the influence of temperature storage conditions on the quality characteristics of wine products, including sparkling wines, has been studied in some detail. Most researchers are of the opinion that in order to maintain a stable quality of wine, it is necessary to store and transport it at a constant temperature not exceeding 20 °C. In scientific publications, there are different views on the problem of the influence of bottle color on the change in chemical composition and the preservation of the quality characteristics of both still and sparkling wines during storage. It has been found that bottles made of darker glass allow protecting wine to a greater extent from the effects of light, especially in its ultraviolet and visible short-wave (λ = 400 nm) range, and prevent the appearance of the so-called “taste of light” (gout de lumière) in the wine. It is shown that the causes of the appearance of the “taste of light” in champagne are sulfur-containing compounds formed as a result of photochemical reactions. It has been found that the intensity of these reactions depends on the degree of illumination, as well as the presence of riboflavin and iron (III) ions in the wine. It is concluded that controlling the amount of light to which wines are exposed can prevent deterioration of their quality during storage and extend the shelf life. The possibility of preventing photodegradation of wine through the use of various antioxidants is also considered. Based on the information available in scientific publications, the study of the development of negative changes in wine under the influence of light is an important aspect from the point of view of risk assessment during product storage.

139-147 135

Socio-cultural structures of yam production are largely shaped by the tradition, religion, beliefs, taboos, myths, spirituality and social relationships. Obudu community was the focus to examine the implications of these structures on yam productivity and sustainability. Data was collected through 60 interviews, 2 public meetings, 3 focus group discussions, local informants, review of literature, including secondary and grey literature and keen observation. Our findings reveal a range of indices of respondents’ perception as measures of productivity. The native and the ‘aged’ majority of the population were more conservative in their farming practice exhibiting deeper attachment to traditional practices and ecological wholesomeness with decreasing material productivity and performance in yield outputs, though not so significant. The socially mobile non-natives and the younger demographic groups were open to the modern farming approach targeting the quantity and tons of yam tubers and were not so keen on the overall health and integrity of the ecological system that makes sustainable production and human existence possible. The results emphasize the need to look beyond the improvement in material productivity as other non-material indices of productivity should be explored. More rigorous quantitative and long-term trend analysis should be conducted to assess the productivity performance trend associated with the natural ecological health and yam outputs for the study area.

148-158 199

The aim of this study was to study the oxidation resistance and functional properties of oleogels based on high oleic oil and wax from Helianthus annuus L. with the addition of a natural complex antioxidant — an extract from Rosmarinus officinalis L. and lecithin from Helianthus annuus L. — when used as a frying medium for French-fries. High oleic sunflower oil was structured into an oleogel with sunflower wax at a dosage of 5%. Studies were carried out to determine the possibility of replacing the synthetic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone at a dosage of 200 mg/kg with a natural antioxidant based on rosemary extract and sunflower lecithin in an oleogel with a defoamer. It was determined that the introduction of sunflower wax increased the induction period of high-oleic sunflower oil by 1.6 times, and the additional introduction of defoamer and antioxidants increased this figure by 1.8–2 times. The rate of accumulation of oxidation products in oil, which is characterized by the level of total polar materials, decreased when wax and antioxidants were added. The degree of thermal oxidation most quickly reached the limit value in oil without additives; in oleogels, it significantly decreased. The introduction of sunflower wax into oil contributed to a noticeable decrease in the absorption of oil by potatoes: fried in oleogel, it absorbed 34–38% less oil than fried in oil without additives. The addition of 0.07% rosemary extract with sunflower lecithin to the oleogel increased the operating time of frying oil by at least 2 times, approximately the same as that of the oleogel with tert-butylhydroquinone. This makes it possible to replace the synthetic antioxidant in deepfrying oleogel with natural rosemary extract with sunflower lecithin. The developed oleogel is a frying oil that has a longer service life and allows you to get fried products with a lower amount of fat.

159-170 198

The demand for protein products is increasing due to the demographic growth of the world’s population. As an alternative to traditional sources of protein, waste from plant raw material processing is becoming increasingly popular. An important place in the global economy is occupied by oilseeds, in particular rapeseed, which production volumes are increasing in the Russian Federation every year. Rapeseed (Brassicaceae napus) is of great interest due to its high oil content (39.80–46.00%) and rich fatty acid composition, while cake and meal formed in the process of oil production are characterized by a significant content of crude protein (35.00–45.00%) and crude fiber (8.20–17.50%); however, they are used mainly as a feed additive. Recent studies on the processing of rapeseed waste indicate the value of this raw material as a source of dietary protein, which has a balanced amino acid profile and a high degree of digestibility (up to 85%). To obtain protein, rapeseed processing is envisaged: cleaning, grinding, cold pressing at a temperature of ≤ 40 °C, fat extraction with a solvent. At the next stages, the protein is extracted with 0.1–0.5 M NaCl at pH 5.3–12.0 and a temperature of 5–30 °C for 1 hour. The extracted protein is precipitated at the isoelectric point (pH 4.0) with HCl, separated from the mixture and neutralized. The result is a protein isolate with a protein content of 90.0–98.7%. It is possible to increase the quality and yield of the protein product due to the additional stage of processing the defatted cake with cellulolytic enzyme preparations. In this case, additional studies are required to determine the substrate specificity of commercial cellulase enzyme preparations and the optimal hydrolysis conditions. The parameters of extraction and precipitation of the protein in the case of using the stage of enzymatic lysis should also be specified.

171-179 122

An integral part of human healthy nutrition is intake of biologically active substances. Extraction is an important stage of isolation of different bioactive substances from plants and effectiveness of their extraction increases with the use of ultrasonic treatment. The aim of this research was to study an effect of different types of aqueous media and treatment methods on Cetraria islandica, including the use of principles of ultrasonic treatment and maceration methods (infusion). The experimental studies consisted in detecting an effect of the active acidity of the aqueous medium (solvent) and method of impact upon extraction on several physicochemical and rheological indicators. The experimental samples of extracts were examined by the following indicators: active acidity and redox potential detected by the ionometric technique; dynamic viscosity and the depth of output of polymeric forms of phenolic substances determined by measuring the optical density and transmission coefficient. Mathematical processing of data using the regression analysis was carried out. The results are presented as graphs, tables and regression equations. It has been established that transfer of substances from Cetraria islandica to its extracts had high results at pH = 7.0 and рН = 9.0 of the solvent. When obtaining extracts by the infusion method, the quantity of polymeric compounds in the transition process was 1.3 times higher than the quantity of monomeric forms of phenolic compounds. The highest value of the dynamic viscosity was revealed in the extract sample obtained by the infusion method in the alkaline medium. The extracts obtained can be used in food system modeling.

180-187 136

The Vitis vinifera L. UFGT gene is one of the diagnostically significant genes for genetic testing of technical grape varieties as well as wine materials and wines produced from them. The strategy for genetic identification of grape varieties and DNA authentication of wine materials that was previously developed by us and is based on direct sequencing of the specific PCR product with a length of 99 bp gave an impulse to prognostic assessment of feasibility of PCR-RFLP analysis for detection of five diagnostically significant polymorphic positions and the following identification of 13 UFGT gene-associated groups of Vitis vinifera L. The aim of this work consisted in identification of UFGT gene-associated groups of Vitis vinifera L. by detection of diagnostically significant polymorphic positions using the developed PCR-RFLP method for genotyping of grape. Objects of research were 24 samples of technical grape varieties. Their sample preparation was carried out by extracting 50–100 mg of mature grape pulp or stone with its mechanical comminution in a mortar and transfer to an Eppendorf-type tube. Then, nucleic acids were extracted using a commercial innuPREP Plant DNA Kit or DiamondDNA Plant kit. PCR-RFLP with the extracted grape DNA was performed with Phire Plant Direct PCR Master Mix and four selected restrictases (PstI, BsaXI, BtsIMutI and HinfI) according to the protocols presented in the paper. The detection of the PCR-RFLP fragments was performed by visualization of electropherograms in a UV transilluminator after horizontal electrophoresis in 2.5% agarose gel with stained TAE buffer. The method for PCR-RFLP genotyping of grapes developed specially for identification of UFGT gene-associated groups of Vitis vinifera L. by detecting diagnostically significant polymorphic positions demonstrated its feasibility when testing 24 samples of technical grape varieties. With that, the positive result was achieved due to the practical ability of each of four selected restrictases to discriminate the strictly specified polymorphic position generating characteristic PCR-RFLP profiles of 13 UFGT gene-associated groups of Vitis vinifera L., seven of which were revealed during this study. Therefore, as a result of the performed study, the genotypic affiliation of several tested grape varieties was established: six samples were identified as representatives of the UFGT gene-associated group No.1; one sample was assigned to gene-associated group No.2; two samples were characterized by the trait of associated group No.3; four samples belonged to group No. 4; one sample to group No. 5; six samples to group No.13.

188-201 181

Special features of the protopectin complex structure of plant tissue suggest the necessity of performing point destruction of certain glycoside bonds in the structure of rhamnogalacturonan polymer chains for industrial production of pectin. These chains include homogalacturonan sites and branching zones. As the homogalacturonan fragments of the protopectin complex carry the main functional load, glycoside bonds between residues of rhamnose and galacturonic acid are targeted bonds. For their directional destruction, it is most expedient to use enzymes of lyase and hydrolase action. The aim of this review is to systemize notions of molecular specific features of enzymes of lyase and hydrolase action that catalyze the process of enzymatic destruction of the rhamnogalacturonan main chain. The paper examines systematics of lyase and hydrolase enzymes by mechanism of destruction of glycoside bonds and by molecular structure. It is shown that the classification data intercross, as a result, each family can include one or several enzyme groups. The review shows the main structural difference of enzymes of lyase and hydrolase action that consists in the obligatory presence of Ca2+ cations in the composition of lyase enzymes. These cations take part in stabilization of conformation of the enzyme molecule and in the catalytic process per se blocking the residue of galacturonic acid. Ca2+ cations are absent in the composition of targeted hydrolase enzymes. Molecular specific features of lyase enzymes determine sensitivity of their catalytic activity to the presence of Ca2+ cations in the system. Exceeding certain concentration can lead to the antagonistic effect. There is no unambiguous idea of this regarding hydrolase enzymes. The review demonstrates the necessity of studying approaches to assessment of expediency of preliminary partial removal of cations from the substrate.

202-210 155

Exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides are the main components in the antioxidant complex of psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria. The extraction of these compounds from the cells is really energy consuming, as well as it requires large doses of chemicals due to the resilience, recalcitrance, complexity and diversity of the cell wall in microalgae. The purpose of this article was to study the dependence of polysaccharides quantitative yield on the power of ultrasound treatment and duration of their extraction, as well as to determine the antioxidant activity of the antioxidant complex of psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria. In order to find and confirm the antioxidant properties of the complexes obtained from the microscopic algae biomass, we used the method based on measuring the optical density (in a liquid nutrient medium), i. e. the method for determining the antioxidant activity of the samples under research by their ability to reduce the level of free radicals. As a result of the studies the rational conditions were found for the extraction of the antioxidant complex from the cell culture fluid, and from the cell-related psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria Skeletonema pseudocostatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, Aphanizomenon gracile, and Anabaena cylindrica. For the exopolysaccharides extraction from the psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria Skeletonema pseudocostatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, Aphanizomenon gracile and Anabaena cylindrica, the method of ethanol extraction with an extraction module of 1:2 and an extraction temperature of 5 °С was used. The ability of psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria Skeletonema pseudocostatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, Aphanizomenon gracile and Anabaena cylindrica to produce an antioxidant complex was studied. It was found that this complex contains polysaccharides: endopolysaccharides and exopolysaccharides in particular. The ability of psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria Skeletonema pseudocostatum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Fragilariopsis kerguelensis, Aphanizomenon gracile, and Anabaena cylindrica to produce an antioxidant complex was proven by the presence of significant antioxidant activity of psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria, determined and confirmed by the methods ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP. The psychrophilic microalga Skeletonema pseudocostatum possesses the highest antioxidant activity. The availability of antioxidant properties in psychrophilic microalgae and cyanobacteria opens up the prospects for their practical application.

211-223 107

Bee honey is a valuable highly nutritive natural product; it is widely consumed among the population. Due to its high cost the natural honey often becomes the object of adulteration. The authenticity of honey is the most important criterion of quality, as on the one hand it ensures the biosecurity of honey, and provides the healthy market competition on the other hand. In this regard, the issue of honey identification is quite acute in all countries with developed beekeeping culture. The authors provide an overview of domestic and foreign regulatory documents regarding the authenticity of honey, as well as its status as a product with a controlled designation of origin. Based on the analysis of scientific literature, the most significant studies aimed to a method of honey authenticity confirmation were selected and brought out. These studies were carried out in the countries of the European Union, China, Brazil, the USA, Mexico and other countries. These studies showed that chromatographic methods and the method of isotope mass spectrometry are the most effective for detection of added sugars in honey, as well as for revealing the fact of feeding bees with various syrups. The authenticity of the botanical and geographical point of honey origin is usually determined by the principle of “fingerprints”. The principle involves collecting the values of an array of indicators and processing them by means of statistical analysis methods. To form a database, in addition to the above methods, methods of NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, PCR, ICP-MS and some others have become widely used. When determining the authenticity of the botanical and geographical origin of honey, it is also necessary to consider the specific features of local melliferous plants, bee species, soil composition and climatic conditions. Thus, an individual yet integrated approach to the identification of honey by means of the instrumental methods of analysis and statistical processing of results will become a powerful and reliable tool in determining its authenticity, including its botanical and geographical origin.

224-232 124

Due to the high prevalence of allergic diseases among the children, especially when transiting a child to bottle feeding at an early age, the development of dairy and other food products with reduced allergenicity is of high relevance and true importance nowadays. Meanwhile Russia still lacks sufficient production of raw materials and ingredients to create home-produced specialized food, including designated babies’ and children’s food. The use of whey milk proteins for the production of baby food has its advantage, as whey proteins feature pretty high digestibility and bioavailability: after eating the food based on whey proteins, the concentration of amino acids and peptides in the blood increases dramatically already within the first hour. However, it should be kept in mind that allergy to cow’s milk proteins is the most common symptom of food allergy, which is particularly often diagnosed in early postnatal age. Technological approaches to reduction of the potential allergenicity of the protein component shall take a leading place in the system of food control and food safety of children’s dairy products. The most efficient and widely used technological approach to reduce the potential allergenicity of food protein is the elimination of its antigenic structures, which approach makes it possible to include this protein into the composition of specialized food, which is intended for the people who suffer from food allergies or for the people exposed to the allergy risk. The allergenicity is reduced by means of enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with membrane processing of the obtained hydrolyzate. To obtain a peptide module with pre-determined physical and chemical parameters, an appropriate selection of initial protein, application of various enzymes, and ranging of technological parameters like pH, temperature, exposure time, enzyme-substrate ratio and other parameters is required.

233-244 90

This review presents the up-to-date scientific ideas about the role of dietary fibers of plant origin (fiber and hydrocolloids) and animal origin (chitosan and collagen) in the food systems. The main attention is focused on their significance and methods of their using in the manufacturing technology of fish products. Dietary fibers are considered as important components of a diet; the dietary fibers prevent certain disorders and regulate the physical and mental health of the population. Consuming of fish products contributes both to the enrichment of raw materials with functional ingredients, as well as to the increasing in the efficiency of processing of raw materials, including underestimated and underutilized aquatic biological resources. The review shows the influence of dietary fibers on the restructuring of fish muscles systems, their ability to hold water and fats, to stabilize emulsions, to change their sensory characteristics, to increase the yield of the finished food products, and also their ability to influence the shelf life of the finished food product. The mechanisms of involving the certain groups of dietary fibers into the physicochemical and biochemical processes of interaction with the components of fish raw materials are considered; the influence of various conditions of processing on gelation and emulsification is studied. The factors that provide antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of various dietary fibers are given. The properties and examples of using the commercial fiber preparations obtained from various sources are analyzed separately, and the significance of the molecular structure of chitosan and collagen for ensuring the specified technological parameters is considered. It is concluded that using the dietary fiber in the manufacturing process of fish products increases the economic efficiency of production and contributes to the development of the healthy food industry.

245-254 114

The article reviews the current state of winter ice roads (winter glacial roads) and presents data that confirm the necessity of their service life extension in order to maintain the uninterrupted cold chain of supply in the northern regions of Russia. The regulatory documents that regulate the design engineering and construction of winter ice roads are analyzed. The existing methods and technologies of winter roads construction have been analyzed. The possibility of using the geosynthetic materials for ice roads reinforcement is considered, as well as possible challenges arising from their use are exposed for consideration. The use of chemical modifiers for the creation of structural materials based on water ice is shown to be prospective and promising, especially in combination with the reinforcement of ice blocks. Modern approaches to choice of ice modifying compounds and materials for ice reinforcing are described, as well as criteria achieved on the basis of their application. The scientific studies confirming the possibility of a significant increase in the bearing capacity of glacial coverage and, as a result, an earlier start of their operation is carried out. It is shown that the combined use of reinforcement and ice modifiers allowed the ice sample to maintain its integrity even under exposure to significant deformation loads. The technical possibility of additional reinforcement of ice transport routes as a result of optimizing the modal parameters of their formation, depending on weather conditions, is also described.

255-260 110

One of the priorities of the Strategy of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation (approved by Presidential Decree № 642 of December 1, 2016) is the transition to a highly productive and environmentally friendly agriculture. Organic agriculture can help to ensure sufficient food for the population by 2050 and simultaneously reduce the impact of agriculture on the environment only if it is implemented as part of a system of agricultural production, which should provide the same volume and composition of products as in the baseline scenario. An important aspect of organic livestock production is to reduce the impact of stress factors on animals. A promising solution can be the use of natural biologically active substances with pronounced antioxidant properties. The action of natural bioflavonoids (Taxifolin) and also in a complex with vitamins on the organism of fattening pigs during the periods of stress of various etiology (climatic, fodder, social etc.) has been studied. A complex including vitamin C, vitamin E and Taxifolin has been developed. The provisions of the method of feeding pigs as a way to reduce the negative impact of stress factors on meat quality by means of the studied nutritional factor have been studied experimentally.

261-268 119

Currently at least 4 food additives — emulsifiers and hydrocolloids — are used for ice cream production to stabilize its structure. However adding these substances reduces the demand for this product among healthy lifestyle adepts. The aim of the research was to define the possibility of using citrus fibers and their compositions together with guar and xanthan gums to stabilize the milk ice cream structure. Samples with gelatin and a complex stabilizer (emulsifier) were used as control samples. It was established that adding of citrus fibers in amount of 0.6% makes the product bitter, does not provide the required level of dynamic viscosity of the mixture, it forms an unstable air phase and large ice crystals. The combination of dietary fibers with gums had a positive effect on these quality characteristics. The highest dispersion of ice crystals (average size accounted for 36–39 μm) and dynamic viscosity of the mixture, comparable with the quality characteristics of the sample with a complex stabilizeremulsifier, was achieved in the sample with added fibers and xanthan gum. The sample with dietary citrus fiber and guar gum showed better characteristics in terms of heat resistance in comparison with the samples with fiber only, as well as samples with plain fiber and guar gum. After 60 min of thermostating, the mass fraction of melt was equal to 7%, which is 2.8 and 2 times less than in samples without gums and with xanthan gum. The correlation was found between the parameter “hardness” and the parameter “thermal stability”: the hardest samples showed the highest resistance to melting. Based on the results of the research, the expediency of using combinations of citrus fibers and guar gum or xanthan gum in the production of ice cream with a limited number of food additives was established. Meanwhile it is necessary to take into account the state of structural elements during the product storage, and using the packaging that helps preserve the shape of the ice cream portion.

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