Пищевые системы

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Том 2, № 2 (2019)
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The article analyzes the deformation mechanism under uniaxial compression of cylindrical samples cut from the pulp of potato tuber. In its typical S-shaped stress-strain diagram, three characteristic zones of different types of dominant deformation can be distinguished. Clarified the boundary between the second and third zones. The rationale for changing the type of deformations in each zone by adding a new type to the previous one is presented. Grounded elastic deformation in the first zone, which is associated with stretching of the cell membranes. In the second zone, the destruction of individual cells distributed in the sample volume occurs and in the third zone — the predominant gradual unification of these destructions. An explanation is given of the characteristic brittle fracture of the sample with significant residual deformations at the end of the third zone. The erroneous determination of the deformations of the second and third zones as plastic (yield) was noted. In this regard, a new term was introduced — modulus of rigidity Z. The change in the modulus of stiffness Z with increasing irreversible deformations indicates structural changes in the flesh of the sample due to its gradually collapsing cell structure. The reason for straightening diagrams for samples from fresh, hard potato tubers is explained. Taking into account the type of deformations by zones allows us to reasonably proceed to the creation of criteria for quantitative assessments of the degree of flaccidity of potato tubers.

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Labelling — the final stage of production, which determines its characteristics and properties. In addition to the main regulated elements of labeling, information about the product distinctive features can be applied to the label, which can influence the potential consumer choice. Complete and reliable information allows not only to identify the product, but also to prevent possible consumer deception. Information falsification is one of the most common ways of misleading consumers.

There are several types of marking: consumer, warning, conformity, environmental and special protective. In order to protect the consumer from information falsification for food products, clear rules for marking for mandatory application have been developed, established in the technical regulations of the Customs Union 022/2011 «Food products in terms of its marking» and technical regulations for certain types of products (industry products features). In recent years, the organic products production is actively developing, the requirements for which in the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) are at the design stage. Organic production is based on the principles of environmental friendliness and humanity, as well as the prohibition of the use of means of production intensification (chemical fertilizers, chemotherapy drugs, artificial food additives, etc.). To control the implementation of these requirements, it is necessary to conduct a full analysis of the production of the product «from the field to the counter», which can be carried out only by highly qualified experts. Confirmation of compliance with the requirements is a organic products sign. In world practice, there are several types of eco-labels. The essence of the developed interdisciplinary approach is a comprehensive application of mandatory and voluntary requirements for the organic food products labeling.

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The main recipe component of most types of flour confectionery is wheat flour, the technological properties of which largely effect not only the quality indicators of the finished product, but also the stability of the technological flow of its production. However, today, in Russia there are no specialized requirements for the quality of wheat flour for confectionery, in contrast to the requirements for the baking wheat flour. The article lists the main problems and features of the quality of Russian wheat flour consisting in the absence of target classifications of grain and a decrease in its qualitative potential, in particular, a decrease in the amount of gluten and improvement of its quality. As part of the work, the influence of the technological properties of wheat flour on the rheological parameters of the dough and the quality of sugar cookies, which are traditionally in high demand of population groups of every age, was studied, while the share of domestic products is more than 85%. The work was performed in the laboratory of flour confectionery products of All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Confectionery Industry. The determination of organoleptic, physical and chemical, structural and mechanical indicators of raw materials, semi-finished products and finished products was carried out by standard methods.

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In the grape processing, secondary resources are primarily the remnants of the generative plant organs (berries) — sweet and fermented husks of grapes, seeds, peels, etc. However, the use of vegetative organs — vines, which are more promising, of grape leaves is promising. It is shown, that red leaves of grape are a source of phenolic compounds, resveratrol and other antioxidants, and also contain activators of enzymes, that cause venotonic and angioprotective properties. The most valuable in this respect are red grape leaves, which grow in covering areas, because on the eve of winter, as a defense against the cold, they accumulate a greater amount of resveratrol. The use of CO2 -extraction technology in the processing of red leaves makes it possible to obtain extraction cake with a high content of biologically active substances due to the destruction of the cell structure during the extraction process. At the same time, the hydrophilic extract of the extraction cake after CO2 -extraction has the greatest value, it is well soluble in water and is intended to enrich the soft juice based on grape juice with biologically active substances. A technology was developed for using CO2 extracts of grape seeds to stabilize margarine emulsions against oxidation and to increase the thermal stability of frying fats.

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To establish the deadline for freshness and shelf life of wheat during long-term storage, the indicator is considered — acid number of fat (ANF) mg KOH per gram of fat in the stored grain sample. To study the nature of the change of this indicator from temperature and relative humidity of the air, the present studies were performed. Samples of grain, harvest 2017, were placed in a desiccator over salt solutions, which were used to set a certain relative air humidity above the surface of the solution in the range from 35% to 75%. In each desiccator were placed two samples of wheat grain III and IV class weighing about 500 g each. The grain layer in the desiccators was 70–80 mm. To monitor the state of the samples, the Logger 100 TV temperature and relative humidity recorders were placed inside the grain layer with a recording interval of readings after 2 hours. Periodically sampled grain from each desiccator for the determination of ANF and humidity. Acid number of fat was determined by the accepted standard method.

The uniformity of humidity values in the desiccators 60% and 75% occurred after two months of storage. For a relative humidity of 35%, 44% arrived after approximately one month of storage. Some fluctuations in relative humidity values are associated with temperature changes at the storage location (laboratory room), as well as with the opening of a desiccator when taking grain samples to determine humidity and ANF. Fluctuations in relative humidity did not exceed 3%. Significant changes (growth) of ANF were observed in the fourth to fifth month of storage the samples at temperatures above 20 °C, at a storage temperature of 10 °C, practically no significant changes in ANF were observed during 9 months of storage.

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The results of studies of physical changes of the structure of milk ice cream at fat content of 4.0 % — 6.0 % and frozen whipped fruit desserts at different degree of overrun with/without addition of whey and whey protein concentrate are given in the paper. It is shown that the storage temperature affects the dispersion of structural elements of frozen whipped fruit desserts. An average size of air bubbles of frozen whipped desserts stored at minus 18°C is 1.2 –1.4 times larger than the size of the bubbles of the samples stored at minus 25°С. The average size of ice crystals increased 1.4 times after 9 months of storage at minus 18°C. The average size of air bubbles of ice cream at 4 % fat content increased 1.5 times after 6 months of storage, and the ice crystals size increased 1.1 times. It is recommended to use the storage temperature below minus 25°С to keep the quality of ice cream and frozen whipped desserts. Milk ice cream and frozen fruit desserts are recommended to be stored at minus 18°С during not more than 6 months.

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The purpose of this work is development of the universal technology of processing of a girasol and chicory for an inulin according to requirements to quality of a feed stock. An inulin — the reserve carbohydrate widespread in flora. There is the most of inulin quantity in chicory, a girasol, much less is in onions, garlic, inula, yakena, etc. The inulin is widely applied as a low-calorie product in a dietary and diabetic food, just also as a jelly former in food. In the All-Russian Research Institute of Starch Products there are conducted researches on development of the universal technology for an inulin from inulin-containing raw materials. The technological assessment of a girasol and chicory from various regions of the Russian Federation is carried out, their physical and chemical indexes are defined. Requirements to processing behavior of raw materials are developed for inulin processing. By results of researches initial requirements to inulin-containing raw materials are defined: a mass fraction of dry solids is not less than 25 %, an inulin is not less than 16 %; mono — and disaccharides are 2 %. Diffusion from freshly harvested and dry chicory shavings and a girasol is studied, optimal established conditions are temperature 80–85ºC; the hydromodule for dry shaving — 1:7; for crude one — 1:2. It is developed the purification mode for extract and girasol and chicory syrups with use of various adsorbents such as the fissile coal, ion-exchange resins. The established high extent of extract and syrup purification is resulted in considerable decrease in a chromacity, mass fraction of a protein, ashes, etc. For researches as control specimens there was used an inulin of the foreign companies. Significance of the work is the creation of domestic technology of an inulin as prebiotic component for a treatmentand-prophylactic nutrition of the population and ensuring its import substitution.

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Nowadays, there is a growing consumer interest in food products, made from vegeta-ble raw materials. The article is devoted to an actual topic related to the choice of plant mate-rials, based on its nutritional and biological value, in order to create functional beverages. The analysis of the world market of vegetable analogues of milk was implemented. Based on the literature, the following raw materials were analyzed: cashew nuts, cannabis fruits, sesame and poppy seeds, almond kernels, buckwheat seeds and oats, soybeans. The data on nutritional value, vitamin-mineral and amino acid composition, as well as the composition of fatty acids of the specified raw materials was presented. The conclusion is made about the perspective of its use for the manufacture of drinks, alternative cow’s milk. The article reflects the results of research work on the creation of a functional drink based on sesame seeds, provides information about the nutritional value and biochemical composition of the drink, made on the basis of this raw material. Sesame milk when used regularly can help prevent diseases of the car-diovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract, the musculoskeletal system.

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ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)