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Vol 4, No 2 (2021)
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74-81 287

The current state and new research trends of creating functional ice cream and frozen desserts are considered in the article. Attention is paid to the difference between the characteristics of ice cream regulated by the term in the countries of European Union and Eurasian Union. Taking into account that ice cream and frozen desserts are multicomponent products, the correction of their composition may have different effect on their quality indices. In particular, replacing sucrose by substitutes can lead to a change of traditional taste, consistency and structure. In this connection, aspects of the usage of sucrose substitutes by sweetness (glucose-fructose syrup, processed fruit products, stevia, sucrolose) and by dry matter (food fibers and polyols) are considered. In particular, the authors of researches note that the application of polyols changes the ice cream consistency to be firmer. The researchers pay attention to the impact of some components, introduced into ice cream and frozen desserts, on the cryoscopic temperature of mixture. The enrichment of ice cream and frozen desserts with pro- and prebiotics and application of milk with the increased nutritional value (sheep and goat milk) has been noted to be a trend in research. The attention is drawn to the practical use of enzymes. For people with lactose intolerance, the reason of which in ice cream is Nonfat milk solids (MSNF) it is proposed to hydrolyze it by different methods. In this review the experience of some scientists on the use of transglutaminase enzyme for changing properties of milk proteins, in particular, increasing their water- holding capacity is reflected. Researchers pay great attention to the increasing of nutritional value of ice cream and desserts by growth of mass fraction of protein and introduction of easily digestible proteins (concentrates of whey proteins, including the hydrolyzed proteins). Taking into consideration the growth of people who do not consume products of animal origin, some researches on replacement of milk protein to vegetable one, in particular, soy are noted.

82-88 351

Jelly candies have a poor nutritional value due to their primary ingredients, which include gelling agents and sugar. In comparison to commercial jelly candy, the aim of this study is developing a natural and healthy jelly candy using fresh fruit comparing with commercials. Three types of jelly candies were prepared (T1: 75% strawberry + 25% beetroot; T2: 50% strawberry + 50% beetroot; T3: 25% strawberry + 75% beetroot). Physico-chemical, phytochemical, microbial, and sensorial profiles of jelly candy were evaluated. The results showed the superior recipe was T1, which recorded the highest values of bioactive compound content. Therefore, it also had the highest antioxidant activity 52.55%. Otherwise, T2 was considered the most favorable recipe for sensory evaluation, which recorded the highest value of overall acceptability and other sensory properties. Decreasing moisture content in all treatments compared with control had a great effect of preventing microbial growth in all samples except control. Therefore, this study creates a new healthier alternative product with the same sensory parameters of commercial jelly candy for all consumer types, especially children. ACKNOWLEDGMENT: All authors are thankful to the Food Science Department and Food Processing Technology Program at the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt for helping them for conducting a few practical experiments in their laboratories.

89-96 84

The distillation stage is a key step in distillate-based alcoholic beverage technology. The use of a new non-traditional type of raw materials to obtain distillates requires comprehensive research. The purpose of this work was to study the processes at the distillation stage of the discharged wort from the recyclable baking waste, in identifying significant factors and determining the optimal technological values of these factors. The objects of the study served 9 samples of fermented wort from various types of recyclable baking waste, distillate fractions and samples of distillates. The distillation was performed on the installation of direct distillation “KOTHE DESTILLATIONSTECHNIK” (Germany). In the objects of the study, the volume, the volume fraction of ethyl alcohol and the mass concentration of the main volatile components were determined. The composition and concentration of basic volatile components were determined using gas chromatography on the device “Thermo Trace GC Ultra” (Thermo, United States). The wide range of variation of the mass concentration of the main volatile components, depending on the composition of the initial raw materials, is revealed. It has been established that the nature of the distribution of volatile components according to distillate fractions does not depend on the physicochemical composition of the fermented wort from different types of recyclable baking waste. It is shown that the nature of the distribution of volatile components according to fractions in obtaining a distillate from the recyclable baking waste has certain differences from their distribution in the preparation of cognac and fruit distillates. A comparative assessment of distillates obtained by single fractionated distillation and double distillation showed the advantage of the first alcohol output and the composition of volatile components. It has been established that the distillation rate with a direct fractionated has a significant effect on the dynamics of the distribution of the main volatile components and the output of the distillate for anhydrous alcohol. With an optimal distillation rate (5.9 cm3 / min), an anhydrous alcohol output increases, on average, by 4% and reduced the losses of valuable aroma-forming volatile components with head and tail fractions.

97-105 127

A relevant solution to the problem of processing meat industry waste in Russia is to obtain useful biologically active compounds from abundant organs. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the saline extraction as a method for extracting a mixture of promising biologically active compounds from the porcine pancreas, as well as to determine the optimal time for the process. The study consisted of extraction of the porcine pancreas with 0,9% sodium chloride solution for 5 h 30 min with further determination of the total protein concentration and proteomic profile of the samples taken throughout the process. Based on the analysis of the dependence of the total protein content in the extractant on time, the optimal extraction time was determined to be 135–150 minutes. When studying the results of electrophoresis and the data of their processing, the optimal extraction time for the targeted isolation of the low-molecular fraction of compounds was also determined to be 90 min. At the same time, 13 protein bands with a molecular weight of 52 kDa and below were found on the electropherograms. Saline should be considered applicable for obtaining extracts rich in biologically active substances, incl. hormones, enzymes and other physiologically active compounds.

106-110 118

The beauty and aging of the human body is associated with such a protein substance as collagen. Our body’s ability to produce this biologically active component naturally and in the right amount becomes limited as we age. Collagen slows down the aging process of the skin, prevents injury, promotes wound healing, improves the absorption of amino acids, can help maintain or improve the biophysical properties of the skin (elasticity, moisture), reduce transepidermal water loss and solve the problem of skin roughness. The purpose of the research work is the development of the technology, recipes for food products — fruit and vegetable juices, drinks, enriched with animal or plant collagen. As a result, the assortment and quality of different types of collagen (tomato, beef, pork and fish) were studied. The organoleptic characteristics of this food additive were studied and the most preferred collagen sample for drinks was selected. The required amount of this substance has been determined, while ensuring the required quality of the drinks. The preservation of the active properties of various types of collagen in a drinking product was investigated. It was proved that beef collagen in an amount of 5% to the mass of the drink retains its active properties as much as possible, in terms of fractional composition — salt, alcohol, alkaline protein fractions. It has been shown that the amino acids methionine, tryptophan and hydroxyproline, which confirm the presence of collagen in the product, are contained in ready-made juice drinks enriched with collagen of beef origin. This type of collagen makes it possible to obtain drinks of “potable” quality, which is confirmed by organoleptic and physicochemical indicators. In general, the studies have shown that a new assortment of juice-containing fruit and vegetable products supplies the important biologically active component (collagen) to the human body.

111-116 156

Nowadays, the problem of food safety and quality assurance throughout the product life cycle is topical in the whole world. According to the WHO data, foodborne diseases linked with consumption of unsafe food, including diseases caused by microbial pathogens, are common in many world countries and are still the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention of the microbiological spoilage of food products is an important task in all food industry sectors. One of the ways for its solution is to carry out investigations to reveal potential sources of microbial contamination of food products including flour confectionery. Cakes are multi-component confectionery products. As a rule, they have the high moisture mass fraction, which conditions the presence of a favorable environment for the development of all types of microorganisms and contributes to the instability of this product type to the effects of environmental conditions during storage. In this study, yeast and mold counts were determined by growing cultures on the solid culture medium (Sabouraud). Pure cultures were isolated by the streak plate method. Stained and unstained microorganisms were examined by the microscopic method. Saccharolytic enzymes of the isolated bacterial cultures were identified using the Hiss’s culture media. Based on the analysis of the ribosomal gene sequence obtained by sequencing the DNA region encoding the ITS-D1/D2 rDNA region, an accurate identification of the strain was performed. The phylogenetic relationship analysis carried out using strains of closely related microorganisms showed that species Cystobasidium slooffiae was the closest relative of the studied strain. The source of Cystobasidium slooffiae was the environment. The detection of this strain indicates violations of the sanitary and hygienic condition of inventory, equipment, industrial premises, including hard-to-reach places, as well as violations of the hygiene rules by personnel; in addition, this indicates the high contamination of raw materials.

117-125 98

One of the promising directions in the application of the valuable whey protein cluster is production of the whey protein microparticulate. The aim of the study was modification of the whey protein cluster to obtain the whey protein microparticulate and its use in the sour cream production technology. Cheese whey, whey protein microparticulate and sour cream were used as the objects of the research. The microparticulate production technology included purification of cheese whey from casein and fat, ultrafiltration, thermomechanical treatment. The composition of the objects of the research, their physico-chemical properties were determined according to the Russian standards. During investigations, the bifidogenic properties of the microparticulate, its high antioxidant activity, water- and fat-binding capacities as well as emulsifying capacity were confirmed. The data about an effect of the microparticulate on the physico-chemical and biochemical processes in sour cream production are presented. Addition of the microparticulate stimulated lactose fermentation, influenced sour cream consistency increasing product viscosity and reducing syneresis. The recommended dose of the microparticulate in the sour cream composition was 15%. Quality indicators of sour cream corresponded to the requirements of the normative documentation. Addition of the microparticulate imparted more pronounced aroma to the product. Higher content of lactic acid microorganisms was observed in the finished product compared to the control sample. The prebiotic properties of the microparticulate improved viability of starter cultures during storage. Formation of free fatty acids in the experimental sample during storage was more intensive compared to the control, while fat oxidation was less pronounced. The use of the whey protein microparticulate in sour cream production is characterized by many advantages: it allows achieving an increase in the effectiveness of milk processing, facilitates sustainability, production profitability, improves finished product quality.

126-133 96

The article presents the results of a study of the characteristics of growth, incl. joint, mold cultures of Penicillium camembеrti and yeast-like fungi of Geotrichum candidum on a dense nutrient medium and the regularities of changes in the organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Camembert-type cheeses in the process of production, ripening and storage, depending on the combinations of bacterial and mold starter microflora. The objects of the study were the cultures of Penicillium camembеrti and Geotrichum candidum, cheeses with white mold, made according to the type of “Camembert” cheese, produced from cow’s milk with mesophilic and thermophilic fermenting microflora, mold cultures of Penicillium camembеrti and yeast-like fungi of Geotrichum candidum. The study of cheeses was carried out in the process of ripening and storage after 15, 30, 60 days from the date of manufacture. It was found that when Penicillium camembеrti and Geotrichum candidum were co-cultivated on Petri dishes, visual assessment showed a symbiotic effect of culture development, which manifests itself in the stimulating effect of yeast-like fungi on the growth of mold fungi compared to the cultivation of each culture separately. Under the conditions of the experiment carried out, the main mold culture influencing the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese was the mold culture of Penicillium camemberti. The combination of mold cultures did not affect the improvement of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheeses. It is shown that the composition of the main acid-forming starter microflora, both mesophilic and thermophilic, has a significant effect on the lactic acid process and flavoring of Camembert-type cheese. The cheeses produced on the basis of mesophilic starter microflora were distinguished by an accelerated ripening process and less storage capacity due to deeper proteolysis. At the same time, cheeses produced on the basis of thermophilic fermenting microflora retained quality stability for up to 60 days. Thus, the use of various combinations of starter cultures will make it possible to create a flavor line of cheeses with white mold, depending on consumer preferences with different storage capacity.

134-143 93

Baromembrane methods, in particular, nanofiltration, open up broad opportunities in the field of obtaining dairy products with a high protein content in terms of quality and energy saving. This paper describes the feasibility of using buttermilk and cheese whey concentrates obtained by nanofiltration in the production of fermented milk products. The physicochemical, rheological and organoleptic studies of nanofiltration concentrates of buttermilk and cheese whey made it possible to select concentrates with a mass fraction of dry substances of 20% for further research. Electron microscopic studies of the microstructure of buttermilk, whey and their concentrates with a mass fraction of dry substances of 20% showed that when buttermilk was concentrated by nanofiltration, the average diameter of dispersed particles did not increase and amounted to (130 ± 30) nm. The grid cells size decreased by 3.2 times; in serum concentration, the particle size increased by 1.7 times with a decrease in the grid cells size by 1.3 times. The obtained data make it possible to predict the positive effect of this concentration method on the consistency of fermented milk products. The use of the combined milk base with a ratio of buttermilk concentrate (20% dry matter) to whey concentrate (20% dry matter) of 50:50 and 75:25 is substantiated, providing a complete protein content of 4.4–5.6% in fermented milk products. A high rate of acid formation and a good water-holding capacity of acid clots were established when fermenting with a starter culture containing thermophilic streptococcus and acidophilic bacillus in a ratio of 4:1. The obtained results make it possible to expand the range of fermented milk products with an increased mass fraction of protein for good nutrition of the population.

144-153 136

The features of technologies for low- and lactose-free dairy products, which provide for special operations to hydrolyze lactose or remove it using ultra- or nanofiltration followed by hydrolysis of the residual amount, are considered. Dairy products manufactured using these technologies in different countries as well as enterprises leading in this field of production are presented. The analysis of the methods used to determine the quantitative content of residual lactose in low- and lactose-free dairy products is carried out: enzymatic, HPLC, HPAEC-PAD, amperometric biosensors, Raman spectroscopy. Due to the dairy industry’s need for analytical methods for the determination of lactose in milk and dairy products with low- or lactose-free content, the AOAC Stakeholder Group on Strategic Food Analysis Methods approved Standard Performance Requirements for Biosensor Methods (SMPR®) 2018.009. These requirements were introduced for the quantitative determination of lactose in milk as well as in dairy and milk-containing products with a low or no lactose content. The biosensor method is recommended for use as the official first step of AOAC method. Additionally, it is advisable to use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass spectrometric detection, as well as high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) as an international standard method of analysis for the determination of lactose in milk with low- or lactose-free content.

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ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)