Food systems

Advanced search

Technological and methodological aspects of the production of low- and lactose-free dairy products

Full Text:


The features of technologies for low- and lactose-free dairy products, which provide for special operations to hydrolyze lactose or remove it using ultra- or nanofiltration followed by hydrolysis of the residual amount, are considered. Dairy products manufactured using these technologies in different countries as well as enterprises leading in this field of production are presented. The analysis of the methods used to determine the quantitative content of residual lactose in low- and lactose-free dairy products is carried out: enzymatic, HPLC, HPAEC-PAD, amperometric biosensors, Raman spectroscopy. Due to the dairy industry’s need for analytical methods for the determination of lactose in milk and dairy products with low- or lactose-free content, the AOAC Stakeholder Group on Strategic Food Analysis Methods approved Standard Performance Requirements for Biosensor Methods (SMPR®) 2018.009. These requirements were introduced for the quantitative determination of lactose in milk as well as in dairy and milk-containing products with a low or no lactose content. The biosensor method is recommended for use as the official first step of AOAC method. Additionally, it is advisable to use high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass spectrometric detection, as well as high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) as an international standard method of analysis for the determination of lactose in milk with low- or lactose-free content.

About the Authors

Ju. V. Nikitina
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking
Russian Federation

Julia V.  Nikitina — junior researcher, Department of Physical Chemistry

19, Krasnoarmeysky Boulevard, 152613, Yaroslavl Region, Uglich

E. V. Topnikova
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking
Russian Federation

Elena V.  Topnikova — doctor of technical sciences, director

19, Krasnoarmeysky Boulevard, 152613, Yaroslavl Region, Uglich

O. V. Lepilkina
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking
Russian Federation

Olga V. Lepilkina — doctor of technical sciences, сhief researcher, head of the Department of Physical Chemistry

19, Krasnoarmeysky Boulevard, 152613, Yaroslavl Region, Uglich

O. G. Kashnikova
All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Butter- and Cheesemaking
Russian Federation

Olga G. Kashnikova — junior researcher, Department of Physical Chemistry

19, Krasnoarmeysky Boulevard, 152613, Yaroslavl Region, Uglich


1. Marangoni, F., Pellegrino, L., Verduci, E., Ghiselli, A., Bernabei, R., Calvani, R. et al. (2019). Cow’s milk consumption and health: A health Professional’s guide. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 38(3), 197– 208.

2. Tepel, A. (2012). Chemistry and physics of milk. Saint Petersburg: Profession, 2012. (In Russian)

3. Foroutan, A., Guo, A. C., Vazquez-Fresno, R., Lipfert, M., Zhang, L., Zheng, J. et al. (2019). Chemical composition of commercial cow’s milk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(17), 4897–4914.

4. Alessio, D. R. M., Thaler Neto, A., Velho, J. P., Perreira, I. B., Miquelluti, D. J., Knob, D. A., da Silva, C. G.. (2016). Multivariate analysis of lactose content in milk of Holstein and Jersey cows1. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 37(4Supl.1), 2641–2652.–0359.2016v37n4supl1p2641

5. Temirdasheva, K.A., GukezhevБ V.M. (2016). Dependence of lactose in the milk of cows of black-pied breed on various factors. Vestnik IRGSHA, 74, 96–101. (In Russian)

6. Sinelnikov, B. M., Khramtsov, A. G., Evdokimov, I. A., Ryabtseva, S. A., Serov, A.V. (2007). Lactose and its derivatives. Saint Petersburg: Profession, 2007. (In Russian)

7. Sgambat, K., Banks, M., Moudgil, A. (2013). Effect of galactose on glomerular permeability and proteinuria in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric Nephrology, 28(11), 2131–2135.–013–2539-z

8. Ficicioglu, C., Hussa, C., Gallagher, P. R., Thomas, N., Yager, C. (2010). Monitoring of biochemical status in children with duarte galactosemia: Utility of galactose, galactitol, galactonate, and galactose 1-phosphate. Clinical Chemistry, 56(7), 1177–1182.

9. Lau, K. K., Wyatt, R. J., Moldoveanu, Z., Tomana, M., Julian, B. A., Hogg, R. J. et al. (2007). Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA in children with IgA nephropathy and henoch-schönlein purpura. Pediatric Nephrology, 22(12), 2067–2072.–007–0623-y

10. Abrams, S. A., Griffin, I. J., Davila, P. M. (2002). Calcium and zinc absorption from lactose-containing and lactose-free infant formulas. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76(2), 442–446.

11. Heine, R. G. (2013). Cow’s-milk allergy and lactose malabsorption in infants with colic. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 57(SUPPL.1), S25-S27.

12. Sherbak, V.A., Sherbak, N.M. (2011). Lactase deficiency in children. Pediatric Pharmacology, 8 (3), 90–93. (In Russian)

13. Kornienko, E.A., Mitrofanova, N.I., Larchenkova, L.V. (2006). Lactase deficiency in babies and infants. Current Pediatrics (Moscow), 5(4), 82–86 (In Russian)

14. Leonardi, M., Gerbault, P., Thomas, M. G., Burger, J. (2012). The evolution of lactase persistence in europe. A synthesis of archaeological and genetic evidence. International Dairy Journal, 22(2), 88–97.

15. Kuokkanen, M., Kokkonen, J., Enattah, N. S., Ylisaukko-Oja, T., Komu, H., Varilo, T. et al. (2006). Mutations in the translated region of the lactase gene (LCT) underlie congenital lactase deficiency. American Journal of Human Genetics, 78(2), 339–344.

16. Vilotte, J. -L. (2002). Lowering the milk lactose content in vivo: Potential interests, strategies and physiological consequences. Reproduction Nutrition Development, 42(2), 127–132.

17. Demina, I. A., Makarova, E. A. (2020, 24 April). Safety and ethics of using transgenic animals. Materials of the scientific and practical conference with international participation dedicated to the 105th anniversary of the birth of A. G. Bannikov. Moscow: Russia. (In Russian)

18. Maksimenko, O.G., Deykin, A.V., Khodarovich, YU. M., Georgiev, P.G (2013). Use of transgenic animals in biotechnology: prospects and problems. Acta Naturae, 5–1(16), 33–45.

19. Houdebine, L. -M. (2005). Use of transgenic animals to improve human health and animal production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 40(4), 269–281. https:/–0531.2005.00596.x

20. Law, D., Conklin, J., Pimentel, M. (2010). Erratum: Lactose intolerance and the role of the lactose breath test. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105(10), 2308.

21. Belmer, S.V., Mukhina, Yu.G., Chubarova, A.I., Geraskina, V.P., Gasilina, T.V. (2005). Lactose intolerance in children and adults. The Attending Physician, 1, 34–38. (In Russian)

22. Brown-Esters, O., Mc Namara, P., Savaiano, D. (2012). Dietary and biological factors influencing lactose intolerance. International Dairy Journal, 22(2), 98–103.

23. Artyukhova, S.I., Syksin, S.V. (2014). Distribution of hypolactasia among the world population. Dynamics of Systems, Mechanisms and Machines, 6, 62–66. (In Russian)

24. Parker, A. M., Watson, R. R. (2017). Lactose Intolerance. Chapter in a book: Nutrients in Dairy and Their Implications on Health and Disease. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 205–211.–0–12–809762–5.00016–4

25. Enattah, N. S., Sahi, T., Savilahti, E., Terwilliger, J. D., Peltonen, L., Järvelä, I. (2002). Identification of a variant associated with adult-type hypolactasia. Nature Genetics, 30(2), 233–237.

26. Heyman, M. B. (2006). Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics, 118(3), 1279–1286.–1721

27. Borovik, T.E., Skvortsova, V.A., Roslavtseva, E.A., Yatsyk, G.V., Lukoyanova, O.L., Stepanova, T.N. et al. (2004). Lactase deficiency in children and possibilities of its dietary correction. Current Pediatrics (Moscow), 3(3), 76–81. (In Russian)

28. Ziatdinova, N.V., Faizullina, R.A. (2010). Lactase deficiency at children. Practical Medicine. 3(42), 44–47. (In Russian)

29. Dekker, P. J. T., Koenders, D., Bruins, M. J. (2019). Lactose-free dairy products: Market developments, production, nutrition and health benefits. Nutrients, 11(3), Article 551.

30. Skurikhin, I.M. (2002). Chemical Composition of Russian Food Products: A Handbook. Moscow: DeLi Print, 2002 (In Russian)

31. Shleip, T. (2004). Caution: lactose! When milk sugar is incompatible with health. Saint Petersburg: Ves, 2004.(In Russian)

32. Mordvinova, V.A., Lepilkina, O.V. (2016). Lactose-free cheeses — myth or reality? Cheese and Butter Making, 1, 38–40. (In Russian)

33. Upreti, P., McKay, L. L., Metzger, L. E. (2006). Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on cheddar cheese quality: Changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening. Journal of Dairy Science, 89(2), 429–443.–0302(06)72107–5

34. Ruiz-Matute, A. I., Corzo-Martínez, M., Montilla, A., Olano, A., Copovi, P., Corzo, N. (2012). Presence of mono-, di- and galactooligosaccharides in commercial lactose-free UHT dairy products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 28(2), 164–169.

35. Tikhomirova, N.A., Nguyen, B.T. (2020). Low-lactose fermented milk products. Milk Processing, 10(252), 10–12. (In Russian)

36. Jelen, P., Tossavainen, O. (2003). Low lactose and lactose-free milk and dairy products — prospects, technologies and applications. Australian Journal of Dairy Technology, 58(2), 161–165.

37. Harju, M., Kallioinen, H., Tossavainen, O. (2012). Lactose hydrolysis and other conversions in dairy products: Technological aspects. International Dairy Journal, 22(2), 104–109.

38. Pulinas, L., Spanu, C., Idda, I., Ibba, I., Nieddu, G., Virdis, S. et al. (2017). Production of farmstead lactose-free pecorino di osilo and ricotta cheeses from sheep’s milk. Italian Journal of Food Safety, 6(1), 33–39, Article 6353. https:/

39. Dekker, P.J.T. (2016). Enzymes Exogenous to Milk in Dairy Technology: β-d-Galactosidase. Chapter in a book: Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences: Second Edition. DSM Food-Specialties, Delft, Netherlands 1–8.

40. Dobriyan, E.I., Ilyina, A.M., Gorlova, A.G. (2019). The manufacture of functional products based on lactose fermentative hydrolysis. Food Industry, 4, 36–37. https:/–2486–2019–10017 (In Russian)

41. Ostroumov, L.A., Gavrilov, V.G. (2013). Biotransformation of lactose enzyme preparations β-galactosidase. Food Processing: Techniques and Technology, 1(28), 26A 31. (In Russian)

42. Bukuru, L.K., Skvortsov, E.V., Bagaeva, T.V., Kanarskaya, Z.A. (2017). Efficiency of β-galactosidase application for obtaining a low-lactose drink based on milk whey. Technological University Bulletin. 20(13), 117–119. (In Russian)

43. Minin, P.S., Timkin, V.A. (2019). Technology for the production of lactose-free milk using baromembrane processes. Milk processing, 12(242), 52–53. (In Russian)

44. Chumakova, I.V., Donskaya, G.A. (2020). Changes in the composition and physical and chemical properties of raw milk in the production of lactose-free milk. Bulletin of the Orenburg State Agrarian University, 4 (84), 193–197.–0853–2020–84–4–193–197 (In Russian)

45. Gavrilov, G.B., Kravchenko, E.F., Gavrilov, V.G. (2013). Membrane processes for processing milk and whey. Cheese and butter making, 6, 22–23. (In Russian)

46. Gavrilov, G.B., Kravchenko, E.F., Gavrilov, V.G. (2012). Bio-membrane processes. Dairy Industry, 7, 49–51. (In Russian)

47. Yan I., Van G., Kao M., Yan Y. (2012). Method for the production of lactose-free milk. Patent RF, no.2443116, 2012. (In Russian)

48. Tikhomirova, N.A. (2016). Low-lactose and lactose-free products for children and medical nutrition. Milk processing, 3(197), 16–19. (In Russian)

49. Ban, M.F., Kirilenko, N.M. (2016, November 4). Development trends of the lactose-free milk market in the Republic of Belarus. Collection of scientific articles of the international scientific and practical conference. Gomel, Belarus.(In Russian)

50. Troise, A. D., Bandini, E., De Donno, R., Meijer, G., Trezzi, M., Fogliano, V. (2016). The quality of low lactose milk is affected by the side proteolytic activity of the lactase used in the production process. Food Research International, 89, 514–525.

51. Dahlqvist, A., Asp, N. G., Burvall, A., Rausing, H. (1977). Hydrolysis of lactose in milk and whey with minute amounts of lactase. Journal of Dairy Research, 44(3), 541–548.

52. McCain, H. R., Kaliappan, S., Drake, M. A. (2018). Invited review: Sugar reduction in dairy products. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(10), 8619–8640.–14347

53. Safronova, A.I., Konovalova, L.S., Gurchenkova, M.A. (2012). Modern approaches to adaptation of formulas for infants. Current Pediatrics (Moscow), 11(2), 56–61. (In Russian)

54. Shulyak, T.L., Gushcha, N.F. (2019). New low-lactose fermented milk products with functional ingredients. Milk Processing, 12(242), 28–31. (In Russian)

55. Antsyperova, M.A., Arsenyeva, T.P., Volkova, O.V., Yakovchenko, N.V. (2019, November 13–15). Investigation of the fermentation process in the production of low-lactose dairy products. IX International Scientific and Technical Conference. Saint Petersburg: Russia. (In Russian)

56. Arsenyeva, T.P., Lugova, M.V. (2020). Modeling low lactose high protein frozen dessert with goat’s milk. Colloquium-journal, 19–1(71), 31–34.–6990–2020–12044 (In Russian)

57. Karnyaczki, Z., Csanadi, J. (2017). Texture profile properties, sensory evaluation, and susceptibility to syneresis of yoghurt prepared from lactose-free milk. Acta Alimentaria, 46(4), 403–410.

58. Lepilkina, O. V. (2020). For the heads of the laboratories. Methods for determining the mass fraction of lactose in milk and dairy products. Dairy Industry, 7, 44–45. (In Russian)

59. van Scheppingen, W. B., van Hilten, P. H., Vijverberg, M. P., Duchateau, A. L. L. (2017). Selective and sensitive determination of lactose in lowlactose dairy products with HPAEC-PAD. Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, 1060, 395–399.

60. Churakova, E., Peri, K., Vis, J. S., Smith, D. W., Beam, J. M., Vijverberg, M. P. et al. (2019). Accurate analysis of residual lactose in low-lactose milk: Comparing a variety of analytical techniques. International Dairy Journal, 96, 126–131.

61. Gille, D., Walther, B., Badertscher, R., Bosshart, A., Brügger, C., Brühlhart, M. et al. (2018). Detection of lactose in products with low lactose content. International Dairy Journal, 83, 17–19.

62. Trani, A., Gambacorta, G., Loizzo, P., Cassone, A., Fasciano, C., Zambrini, A. V. et al. (2017). Comparison of HPLC-RI, LC/MS-MS and enzymatic assays for the analysis of residual lactose in lactose-free milk. Food Chemistry, 233, 385–390.

63. Gambelli, L. (2017). Milk and Its Sugar-Lactose: A Picture of Evaluation Methodologies. Beverages, 3(4), 35.

64. Rybakova, E.V. (2005). High performance ion and liquid chromatography for the analysis of food products for children. Food Industry, 3, 24–26. (In Russian)

65. Garballo-Rubio, A., Soto-Chinchilla, J., Moreno, A., Zafra-Gómez, A. (2018). Determination of residual lactose in lactose-free cow milk by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 66, 39–45.

66. Monti, L., Negri, S., Meucci, A., Stroppa, A., Galli, A., Contarini, G. (2017). Lactose, galactose and glucose determination in naturally “lactose free” hard cheese: HPAEC-PAD method validation. Food Chemistry, 220, 18–24.

67. Conzuelo, F., Gamella, M., Campuzano, S., Ruiz, M. A., Reviejo, A. J., Pingarrón, J. M. (2010). An integrated amperometric biosensor for the determination of lactose in milk and dairy products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(12), 7141–7148.

68. Halbmayr-Jech, E., Kittl, R., Weinmann, P., Schulz, C., Kowalik, A., Sygmund, C. et al. (2021). Determination of lactose in lactose-free and lowlactose milk, milk products, and products containing dairy ingredients by the LactoSens®R amperometry method: First action 2020.01. Journal of AOAC International, 103(6), 1534–1546.

69. Ivory, R., Delaney, E., Mangan, D., McCleary, B. (2020). Determination of Lactose Concentration in Low-Lactose and Lactose-Free Milk, Milk Products, and Products Containing Dairy Ingredients: Single Laboratory Validation of an Enzymatic Method, First Action Method. Journal of AOAC International.

70. Li, M., Chen, J., Xu, J., Fu, S., Gong, H. (2015). Determination of lactose in milk by Raman spectroscopy. Analytical Letters, 48(8), 1333–1340.


For citations:

Nikitina J.V., Topnikova E.V., Lepilkina O.V., Kashnikova O.G. Technological and methodological aspects of the production of low- and lactose-free dairy products. Food systems. 2021;4(2):144-153. (In Russ.)

Views: 363

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)