Food systems

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Vol 3, No 3 (2020)
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4-7 526
Building a digital profile of food product with use of modern mathematical apparatus of basic matrices is a solution to the problem of designing innovative beverage recipes. In this regard, for the effective use of the food resource base, modeling and production of high-quality food products, there is an acute problem of developing a methodology for identifying food products using the full range of the currently available analytical base. The article discusses an algorithm for constructing a flexible experimental design for the new identification criteria development, taking into account the laboratory research peculiarities in the beverage industry. The application of software in experiment designing is considered and a practical example of integrated designing based on the construction of an identification criterion for wine materials is presented.
8-13 464
The processes that take place upon saccharified wort obtaining from the returnable baking waste and its fermentation was the research subject of this work. The development of operational parameters at the stage of returnable baking waste preparation for distillation, which provides a high-quality product is the purpose of the work. The samples of saccharified and fermented wort obtained from various bread and bakery products types produced by large enterprises in Moscow were the objects of the study. To characterize the composition of saccharified and fermented wort, the indicators to assess the quality of the wort from grain raw materials were used. The mass concentration of individual sugars in the wort was determined using high performance liquid chromatography on an Agilent Technologies 1200 Series device. The qualitative composition and volatile components concentration in the fermented wort was determined using gas chromatography on a Thermo Trace GC Ultra device. It was established that the percentage of solids transition to a soluble state does not depend on a returnable waste type and is in the range from 87.6% to 90.7%, and the starch transition to a soluble state, on the contrary, is determined by the processed raw materials type. It is shown that the use of rye-wheat bread after its preliminary enzymatic treatment with thinning and cytolytic drugs in a mixture with wheat bread in a ratio of 1÷1 to 1÷2 can improve the wort rheological characteristics and transfer from 98.1% to 99.3% starch of raw materials in a soluble state. It has been shown that for the efficient process of saccharified wort fermentation from returnable baking waste, the Fermiol and Turbo‑24 alcohol yeast races are most suitable, which ensure a high yield of ethanol and an optimal composition of volatile components in the fermented wort.
14-19 898
A study of the preparation and milling of a grain mixture containing 7% of flax seeds has been carried out in order to obtain a composite wheat-flax flour, in which the entire biopotential of flax seeds was preserved. It was revealed that the preparation of the components of the grain mixture should be carried out independently, in parallel flows. During the wheat grain preparation the cold conditioning was carried out, the modes of which were the following: humidity — 15.5%, dwell time in the water — 24 hours. The optimal conditions for milling the wheat-flax mixture have been determined, which are the following: yield (%) / ash content (%) in 3 break systems (in terms of the 1st break system — grain) for the first break system — 53.5 / 1.00; for the second break system. — 22.2 / 1.11; totally for the first and the second break systems — 75.7 / 1.035; totally for the first, the second and the third break systems — 81.0 / 1.1. The technological schemes have been developed and the new varieties of wheat-flax flour with predetermined technological properties and increased nutritional value have been formed. The approximate indices of yield and quality of the new wheat-flax flour varieties are the following: Flour A — yield 45–50%, lipids 3.6–4.0%, protein 13–13.5%, ash 0.55–0.70%, whiteness — 50 conventional units; Flour B — yield 20–25%, lipids 5.5–6.0%, protein 14–14.5%, ash 0.9–1.25%, whiteness — 22 conventional units; Flour C — yield 70–75%, lipids 4.5–5.0%, protein 13.6–14.0%, ash 0.75–0.90%, whiteness — 36 conventional units. It was indicated that the total lipids content in flour from two-component mixtures increases by about 4 times, and the total protein content in the studied samples increases by 1–2%. The content of linoleic acid (ɷ‑6) in wheat-flax flour samples is 1.6…3.3 times higher than in wheat flour; the content of linolenic acid (ɷ‑3) in wheat-flax flour samples is 36.8…57.2 times higher than in wheat flour (taking into account the total lipids content in the samples). The enrichment of wheat flour due to flax seeds allows to make up the deficiency of PUFA family in the diet of a modern person and to obtain products on a grain basis of a balanced composition.
20-24 1252
The purpose of the work is to study the enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin-containing syrups of various purification degrees from chicory chips in the production of oligofructose to be used in dietary, diabetic and health-preventive nutrition products. It has been determined that ion exchange purification of the syrup is necessary for hydrolysis. Individual stages of ion-exchange purification are specified using a two-stage scheme: К1-А1-К2-А2 and an additional stage on the “Macronet” sorbent MN200 to stabilize pH and remove bitterness taste. Requirements for the quality of syrup for hydrolysis have been developed: pH value — 4.5–5.0; chromaticity — not more than 0.5 units opt. den.; ash — not more than 0.2%; protein — 0.5%; no bitterness taste. Optimal conditions for hydrolysis of inulin-containing syrup have been established using Novozim 960 endoinulinase (Denmark): temperature — 55–58 °C; pH — 4.7–5.2; DS (dry substance) — 19%; preparation dosage — 0.4 units. INU/g of syrup DS; time 20–24 h. A sample of oligofructose syrup was obtained using the preparation “Novozim 960.” The carbohydrate composition of oligofructose after the inulin hydrolysis was determined: fructooligosaccharides (FOS) — 70.12%; oligofructosides — 24.79%; disaccharides — 2.11%; fructose — 2.98%. Requirements for carbohydrate composition of oligofructose obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin-containing syrup have been developed: sum total of FOS and oligosaccharides — not less than 93%, sum total of di- and monosaccharides — not more than 7%.
25-31 649

The research focused on studying the impact of sourdough with spontaneous flora (SSF) (obtained also from gluten-free flour) and artizanal technologies on the quality indices of cozonac — a traditional pastry product. Physico-chemical and microbiological indices were analyzed, as well as glycemic index (GI) of cozonac samples with different fermentation agents. The experimental results showed that the GI of the cozonac samples have similar values, being between GI = 68 and GI = 71. Respectively, cozonac with SSF samples can be classified in the category of foods with moderate GI, and cozonac with commercial yeast (CY) — in the category of foods with high GI. Digestibility indices for all samples reached values between 72% and 76%. The sensory profiles of baked cozonacs were analyzed descriptively by the panel members, and the results showed that all cozonac samples were characterized by slightly acid taste, with specific and pleasant flavors.

However, it seems that a long fermentation of the dough, even if CY is used as a fermenting agent, leads to the formation of quality indices of the dough and cozonac, very close to the products obtained only with SSF. The use of SSF from sorghum flour would be an alternative in the development of gluten free bakery and pastry products using artisanal technologies.

32-41 1264

The growth in demand for fish products as a result of globalization of trade caused a risks and threats of selling poor-quality and falsified fish products. This has become a great problem both for supervising agencies and for consumers.

Many countries have regulations on food labelling and safety. For example, in the Russian Federation, Republic of Belarus and Republic of Kazakhstan has been passed the Technical Regulation of the Customs Union TR CU022/2011 “Food products in part of their labeling” that aims to prevent misinformation of consumers to ensuring realization of consumer rights to reliable information about food products, and Technical Regulation TR EAEU040/2016 “On safety of fish and fish products” requires indication of the zoological name of the species of the aquatic biological resource or the object of aquaculture.

Fish species identification is traditionally carried out based on external morphological traits. However, it becomes impossible to identify species by ichthyological traits upon fish cutting, if the head and fins are removed, and the body is cut on pieces (especially, in case of fillets) and even more so upon technological processing. In this case, objective analytical methods of species identification are used, which are based on ELISA or PCR. However, DNA‑based methods have several advantages compared to ELISA methods and complement traditional morphological identification methods. This paper gives a wide overview of the most recent and used methods of fish species identification based on DNA analysis such as single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, species-specific PCR, real-time PCR, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP), DNA barcoding, Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS).

42-50 614
The effect of the type and dose of milk-clotting enzymes (Chy-max® M based on recombinant camel chymosin, Fromase® TL based on Rhizomucor miehei protease) on the physicochemical, functional properties and shelf life of pizza-cheeses was studied. When using a low dose of milk-clotting enzymes (MCE) for milk coagulation (250–1100 IMCU per 100 kg of milk), cheeses were obtained with an increased moisture content (55–57%), excessive acidity (pH 4.8–4.9) and texture defects (incoherent, crumbly, with separation of free moisture). This is due to the formation of a weak curd, which releases moisture poorly during processing. The use of an increased dose of MCE makes it possible to obtain a denser curd, better releasing moisture. Cheese produced with a high dose of milk-clotting enzymes (2000–2800 IMCU per 100 kg of milk) had a lower moisture content (52–53%) and lower acidity (pH 5.0–5.1). The protein matrix is more hydrated in these cheeses, which ensures its better water holding capacity and a more homogeneous and cohesive texture. The use of an increased dose of MCE with a high total proteolytic activity (Fromase) gives undesirable consequences in the form of accelerated proteolysis of cheese mass proteins, rapid loss of functional properties of the cheese, and a decrease in the shelf life of cheese (less than 60 days). Cheese production using an increased dose of MCE with a low level of total proteolytic activity (Chy-max M) allows achieving a low level of proteolysis during cheese ripening and increasing its shelf life.

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ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)