Food systems

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Vol 4, No 3 (2021)
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158-163 141

Dietetic therapy plays an important role in prevention and treatment of non-communicable, alimentary-dependent diseases including the bile duct diseases and chronic liver injury. The medico-biological requirements for the composition and quality of specialized semi-finished products for prevention and treatment of liver diseases are formulated and formalized in the paper. Using the methods of the computer design, the recipe of the specialized minced meat semi-finished product from horse meat, which is nutrient adequate to specific features of nutrition of patients with liver diseases, was developed and optimized. The experimental recipe of minced semi-finished products consists of horse meat of the second grade, soy protein fiber, soy protein isolate, textured soy flour, milk thistle oil meal, chicken eggs, soybean oil, salt, onion, vitamins B1, B2 and E, magnesium and zinc salts. The biological value of the obtained product is characterized by the high indices of the amino acid balance (Cmin=0.99, σс =0.85, U=6.27) and fatty acid balance of lipids ((RLi) I = 1…3 = 0.9 and (RLi) I = 1…6 -0.77). The content of dietary fibers, vitamins B1 and B2 as well as mineral salts of magnesium and zinc in the semi-finished product corresponds to the medico-biological requirements. The effectiveness of the developed product was confirmed in the experiment of the laboratory mice with simulated liver cirrhosis. The results of the assessment on the laboratory animals show that the developed product positively influences the processes of metabolism in the mouse body. The coefficient of protein assimilation in the group of animals fed with the specialized product was 25% higher than in animals received the standard vivarium diet. The biochemical blood analysis showed that intake of the developed product reduced the content of bilirubin, cholesterol, AST and ALT in the animal body by 34.5%, 8.2%, 11.0% and 12.5%, respectively.

164-171 143

Nowadays the functional ice cream production keeps developing. Due to that the traditional composition of the ice cream is amended. In case of substitution of the low molecular weight nutrients (sucrose, lactose and mineral salts of dry skimmed milk residue) with technologically functional nutrients, it changes the cryoscopic temperature, which influences the parameters of production process, in particular the temperature of the ice cream getting from the freezer. In this regard, the problem of calculating the cryoscopic temperature of ice cream mixtures has become acute, since it is not possible to find this parameter experimentally at all food enterprises. While calculating the cryoscopic temperatures on the basis of existing reference data, in some cases the authors encountered a significant (more than 0.5 °C) deviation of the calculation results from the experimental data. In order to establish the cause of these deviations, the authors analyzed aqueous solutions of sucrose, fructose, trehalose, erythritol, maltodextrin, polydextrose, sorbitol, glucose-fructose syrup, dry glucose syrup, inulin in concentrations that provide for the cryoscopic temperatures of solutions within the range from 0 °C to minus 6 °C. The cryoscopic temperature of the solutions was measured by an osmometer-cryoscope, and the conventional molecular weight of the substances was calculated on the basis of Raoult ratio, taking into account the high molecular weight substances and admixed impurities. It was shown that the values of the conventional molecular weight for trehalose and sorbitol solutions differ by more than 15% from the values of chemically pure substances due to presence of low molecular weight monomers in their composition. The presented experimental data on the conventional molecular weight values can be used for calculation of cryoscopic temperature of various types of mixtures used for ice cream production. As an example of application of obtained clarified values of conventional molecular weights, this article provides a method for calculation of cryoscopic temperature of low sucrose and sucrose-free ice cream mixtures, as well as a comparison of the calculation results with experimentally obtained data.

172-179 192

The pressing challenge of ensuring long shelf life for confectionery product without changing their flavor is considered. The patterns were revealed for the influence of the chemical composition of raw materials on the jelly marmalade structure. The influence of glucose syrup and gelling agent contents on the physicochemical and rheological properties of jelly marmalade was investigated. An increase in the mass fraction of glucose syrup from 5% to 25% leads to an increase in the elastic and plastic properties of jelly marmalade. The ratio of the main ingredients forms the molecular structure of jelly marmalade and thereby affects the dependence of moisture content on the water activity. The correlation between the water activity and the hardness of jelly marmalade has been established. The highest hardness and water activity were observed in products containing 15% glucose syrup, which determines the highest moisture transfer rate for such products. The use of modified starch allows controlling the moisture losses during marmalade storage. Formulation adjustment and moisture content decrease in the marmalade significantly reduce the risk of undesirable sensory changes on the surface of the marmalade during its storage. Various types of modified starch may control the shelf life of jelly fruit marmalade. An increase in reducing substances concentration during the storage of jelly-like confectionery products contributes to their moistening. On the other hand, a decrease in reducing substances concentration leads to granulation in products. It is shown how a change in the main ingredients ratio of jelly marmalade affects the formation of its molecular structure, which determines the free/bound moisture ratio. The obtained results allow controlling the quality and predicting the safety of jelly-like confectionery products.

180-189 166

The results of scientific research of the process of eyes formation in cheeses depending on the molding method and modes of pressing the cheese mass; the type of gassing microorganisms that make up the starter culture; rheological properties of curd; the presence in the cheese mass of “germs” — the centers of the formation of eyes — are considered. It is noted that the most studied in terms of the formation of the pattern are large cheeses of the Emmental or Swiss type with eyes up to 3 cm in diameter, which can be easily estimated by calculating their quantity and volume. For this, there are methods for visualizing eyes in the volume of cheese: X-ray, computed and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and acoustic sounding. The least studied is the process of pattern formation in cheeses like Tilsiter and Russian, molded in bulk, with a large number of irregular, angular eyes. In connection with the observed tendency to the loss of the distinctive features of this type of cheese (rare, insufficiently pronounced eyes), great importance is attached to objective methods for assessing the pattern in these cheeses as one of the most important indicators of the product quality. Since computed tomography, X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging are methods that require expensive equipment, the need for a simpler procedure, suitable for production laboratories of cheesemaking enterprises, is justified for use in routine examinations. Based on the assumption that cheeses with a frequent pattern of angular, irregular shape can be considered as porous bodies, an assumption was made about the advisability of developing a method for measuring the porosity coefficient, which could supplement the organoleptic assessment of the pattern with an objective indicator that would allow the rejection of cheeses on this basis.

190-196 129

Food products undergo a wide range of chemical changes during their processing and storage. As a result of such reactions, both new chemical compounds and optical isomerization of compounds already present in the composition can be formed. The second case concerns the formation of D-enantiomers of amino acids from their L-forms. D-forms of amino acids not only have no biological value for the body, but also often have a negative effect on the human body due to the impossibility of metabolizing them and, as a consequence, their accumulation in the body. The aim of the work was to study the quantitative content of D-isomers of amino acids in milk that passed the ultra-pasteurization process and dairy products based on bacterial starter culture. The research results showed that in both cases of the considered technological methods, amino acid isomerization occurs. The highest degree of isomerization was observed in kefir samples relative to other samples. However, from the results obtained, it is not possible to estimate which amino acid is most susceptible to the racemization process, since different samples contained different D-isomers of amino acids. The smallest amount of D-isomers is found in milk that has not undergone any industrial processing. Studies have shown that technological processing of milk inevitably leads to the formation of D-isomers of amino acids, and this, in turn, at least reduces the nutritional and biological value of the product, which makes it necessary to conduct deeper studies in this direction to establish the most important factors in the process of racemization of amino acids in food products.

197-203 119

In several cases, it is necessary to use heat treatment of cereal products to reduce moisture, inactivate some enzymes, increase storability and processing efficiency. One of the methods for heat treatment is high-temperature micronization — heating in a flow of infrared radiation. The method is convenient in the conditions of small and medium-sized enterprises. The aim of the study was to obtain the factual material regarding heating and desiccation of hemp seeds when heating in the flow of infrared radiation and modeling of the heating and desiccation processes. The experimental dependences of a seed temperature and moisture on heating time at different regimes of infrared heat treatment were obtained. Mathematical models were proposed for changes in a seed temperature as a function of time and moisture content depending on a seed temperature and the initial moisture. The desiccation models were based on simplified solutions of the system of differentiated equations of heat and mass transfer obtained by academician V. A. Lykov and his students. Model coefficients were identified by the results of the experiments. Analysis of the obtained coefficients shows that it is possible to use one coefficient in the examined models without a significant loss of the prognostic accuracy. The proposed models describe the experimental data quite well upon constant conditions of infrared heating of hemp seeds (irradiance and temperature in the treatment zone). However, heating conditions significantly affect the time dependence of the relative moisture (W/W0) and temperature increment ΔT(t). At the same time, it follows from the processing results and available experimental data that the character of the dependence W(ΔT) is determined by the initial moisture and is stable (that is, weakly depends on heating conditions).

204-212 124

The effect of the type of milk clotting enzyme (MCE) on the duration of milk coagulation, parameters of the composition of whey and cheeses, and the output of cheeses in the production of soft cheese such as “Lyubitel'skiy” were investigated. Three brands of MCE of different origins were investigated: Marzyme® (MCE of microbial origin based on Rhizomucor miehei protease), Naturen® (calf rennet) and Chy-max® M (recombinant camel chymosin). It was established that MCEs had different ratios of milk clotting activity (MCA) to total proteolytic activity (PA). It was determined that the MCA/PA ratio, which characterizes the degree of specificity of the MCE action with regard to kappa-casein, in Chy-max M 1000 is ~7 times higher than that of Naturen and ~50 times higher than that of Marzyme. Such differences did not lead to a negative effect when using the Marzyme preparation in the production of soft cheeses. There were no statistically significant differences in the amount of dry matter loss of the curd into the whey, physicochemical parameters and output between the variants of cheeses made with the studied brands of MCE. Shorter duration of milk clotting (16.5 min) was observed with Marzyme than with MCE of Naturen (20.5 min) and Chy-max M (22.5 min). The results of the coagulation duration were explained by the stimulation of the activity of MCE of microbial origin, by the pH level of milk before coagulation (below pH 6.4). It was shown that modern MCEs of microbial origin could be recommended as a cost-effective replacement for more expensive rennet and recombinant chymosins in the production of soft and fresh cheeses.

213-219 108

A demand for canned vegetables and fruit depend, first of all, on their consumer characteristics. These products should correspond to high requirements regarding their nutritional and biological value, as well as sensory properties. The aim of the work was to study the microstructural changes in the cells of green peas in the products of their processing. Fresh, frozen and canned peas made from fresh and rehydrated raw materials were used as objects of the research. Components such as chlorophyll and starch were characterized in the cells of the hypodermis and parenchyma, respectively, using light microscopy. It was found that plastids with chlorophyll stained in the bright green color were present only in cells of the hypodermis of frozen peas. Moreover, the same color of the pigment was also recorded in the samples of fresh peas. Appearance of brown hues in these cells was observed in the canned product from fresh peas, which was associated with transformation of chlorophylls into pheophytins and pyrophephytins. The hypodermis in the samples of canned peas from rehydrated raw materials was represented by almost colorless cells. When analyzing the preparations of the parenchymal cells of the indicated processed products stained with iodine, it was shown that starch grains in the samples of frozen and canned green peas from fresh raw materials maintained their concentric shape, while swelling of starch grains was observed in the stained preparations of the parenchyma of canned peas from rehydrated raw materials. The comparative microstructural analysis of processed products from green peas showed that maximum quality had the frozen product from fresh raw materials as the studied indicators (chlorophyll and starch grains) showed.

220-225 163

Fats and oils irrespective of their application field are usually used as emulsions — disperse systems consisting of two immiscible liquids stabilized by an emulsifier. One of the main indicators for emulsions is effective viscosity, which characterizes behavior of liquid in flow. This indicator is also important for optimization of production processes, application and storage of emulsions. It was found that fat of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae is close to coconut and palm oil by its qualitative and quantitative composition, which makes it one of the promising alternative sources of fats for the industry. Based on this fact, the aim of the study was to determine effective viscosity of lecithin solutions and fat emulsions of black soldier fly larvae depending on the lecithin content of 0.5-2.5 weight%. It was found that consistency of the lecithin solutions increased when its concentration increased from 0.5 to 2 weight%. The lecithin solutions with concentrations of 1.0-2.0 weight% demonstrated weak pseudoplastic behavior and those with the lecithin content of 2.5 weight% dilettante. Emulsions with fat of black soldier fly larvae showed twofold lower consistency compared to the lecithin solutions of the same concentration and weak pseudoplastic behavior, which manifestation did not depend on the lecithin concentration.

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ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)