Food systems

Advanced search

Results of the complex evaluation of bryndza cheese and the byproduct milk whey with the use of enzyme MTG and its activity degree during storage


The paper examines the question of using the enzyme microbial transglutaminase (mTG) for bryndza cheese production. Microbial transglutaminase belongs to the enzyme family that catalyzes formation of bonds between amino groups. One of the problems in production of high-protein products, in particular, cheeses from goat milk is flabbiness of the clot. The use of mTG in the technological process would allow strengthening the product protein matrix, thereby improving its commercial characteristics. When performing the histological investigation of cheeses with this enzyme type to characterize the state of the protein matrix, the authors established that the product protein structure was more condensed compared to the control samples (without mTG), which affected cheese consistency. Consistency became more rubbery negatively influencing the product sensory properties, which are important traits for a consumer when buying a product. Using a Brookfield texture analyzer, it was shown that structural-mechanical characteristics were improved by 1.5 times for cheese samples produced from cow milk and by 2 times for goat cheese when mTG was used. Analysis of the enzyme catalytic activity showed that this enzyme retained its activity throughout the whole storage period, which is a potential hazard for human health. After shelf-life expiration, a change in the mTG activity was not more than 5% relative to the initial levels. The enzyme activity retained not only in cheese but also in the by-product — cheese whey, which made its processing more difficult.

About the Authors

K. A. Kanina
Russian State Agrarian University — Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Russian Federation

Ksenia A. Kanina, Candidate of technical sciences, Head of the Laboratory, Department of Technology of storage and processing of animal products

48, Timiryazevskaya str., 127434, Moscow
Tel.: +7–499–976–46–12

N. A. Zhizhin
All-Russian Research Institute of the Dairy Industry
Russian Federation

Nikolay A. Zhizhin, Candidate of technical sciences, Researcher, Laboratory of Technochemical Control

35, Lyusinovskaya str., 115093, Moscow

E. A. Karakulova
Russian State Agrarian University — Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Russian Federation

Ekaterina, A. Karakulova, Master’s degree

48, Timiryazevskaya str., 127434, Moscow
Tel.: +7–499–976–46–12

P. R. Atanasov
Russian State Agrarian University — Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy
Russian Federation

Peter R. Atanasov, Student

48, Timiryazevskaya str., 127434, Moscow
Tel.: +7–499–976–46–12


1. Popova, L.V. (2008). Effect of salts-stabilizers on dry matter content in whey by cheese making. Bulletin of the Altai State University, 8(46), 56–58. (In Russian)

2. Tepel, A. (2012) Chemistry and physics of milk. Saint-Petersburg: Profession, 2012.(In Russian)

3. McSweeney, P.L., Fox, P.F., Cotter, P.P., Everett, D.U. (2019). Cheese. Scientific foundations and technologies. Saint-Petersburg: Profession, 2019.

4. Nenyukova, E.V., Madosyan, G.N. (2019). State and prospects for the development of production of dairy products in the Russian Federation. Economics and Business: Theory and Practice, No. 11–2(57), 123–125.–0450–2019–11367 (In Russian)

5. Tolkacheva, A.A., Cherenkov, D.A., Korneeva, O.S., Ponomarev, P.G. (2017). Enzymes of industrial purpose — review of the market of enzyme preparations and prospects for its development. Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies, 79(4(74)), 197–203.–1202–2017–4–197–203 (In Russian)

6. Savinova, A.A., Lutsenko, A.V. (December 20, 2019). The role of enzymes in the food industry. Improvement of technologies of production, processing and examination of the quality of food products. Persianjvskiy, Russia, 2019. (In Russian)

7. D’Alessandro, A. G., Martemucci, G., Faccia, M. (2021). Effects of microbial transglutaminase levels on donkey cheese production. Journal of Dairy Research, 88(3), 351–356.

8. He, C., Hu, Y., Woo, M. W., Xiong, H., Zhao, Q. (2021). Effect of microbial transglutaminase on the structural and rheological characteristics and in vitro digestion of rice glutelin–casein blends. Food Research International, 139, Article 109832.

9. Miwa, N. (2020). Innovation in the food industry using microbial transglutaminase: Keys to success and future prospects. Analytical Biochemistry, 597, Article 113638.

10. García-Gómez, B., Vázquez-Odériz, M. L., Muñoz-Ferreiro, N., RomeroRodríguez, M. A., Vázquez, M. (2020). Effect of the milk heat treatment on properties of low-fat yogurt manufactured with microbial transglutaminase. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 32(10), 739–749.

11. Cadavid, A. M., Bohigas, L., Toldrà, M., Carretero, C., Parés, D., Saguer, E. (2020). Improving quark-type cheese yield and quality by treating semi-skimmed cow milk with microbial transglutaminase. LWT, 131, Article 109756.

12. Fotschki, J., Wróblewska, B., Fotschki, B., Kalicki, B., Rigby, N., Mackie, A. (2020). Microbial transglutaminase alters the immunogenic potential and cross-reactivity of horse and cow milk proteins. Journal of Dairy Science, 103(3), 2153–2166.–17264

13. Gaspar, A. L. C., De Góes-Favoni, S. P. (2015). Action of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in the modification of food proteins: A review. Food Chemistry, 171, 315–322.

14. Aaltonen, T., Huumonen, I., Myllärinen, P. (2014). Controlled transglutaminase treatment in edam cheese-making. International Dairy Journal, 38(2), 179–182.

15. Yashkin A. I. (2019). Modern approaches to the use of microbial transglutaminase in cheese making (Analytical Review) Molochnokhozayistvenny Vestnik, 1(33), 98–113.–4269–2019–00010 (In Russian)

16. Morgunova, H.M., Fedorenko, E.V., Zhurnia, H.A. (2018). Chemical composition and food value of milk and dairy products, presented in the market of the Republic of Belarus. Food industry: Science and Technology, 11(4(42), 6–20. (In Russian)

17. Lad, S.S., Aparnathi, K.D., Mehta, B. M., Velpula, S. (2017). Goat Milk in Human Nutrition and Health — A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(5), 1781–1792.

18. Zobkova, Z.S., Fursova, T.P., Zenina, D.V., Fedulova, L.V. (2017) The use of transglutaminase to increase the biological value of cottage cheese. Food Industry, 1, 38–40. (In Russian)

19. Lavrova, T.E., Reviakina, V.A., Borovik, T.E., Roslavtseva, E.A. (2004). Modern approach to the problem of food intolerance. Current Pediatrics (Moscow). 3(6), 40–49. (In Russian)

20. 20.TR CU029/2012 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “Safety requirements for food additives, flavorings and process aids”, Decision of the Council of the Eurasian economic Commission of June 20, 2012, No. 58. Moscow, 2012. (In Russian)

21. GOST R52054–2003 “Cow’s milk raw. Specifications” — Moscow: Standartinform, 2008. — 16 p. (In Russian)

22. GOST 3624–92 “Milk and milk products.Titrimetric methods of acidity determination” — Moscow: Standartinform, 2009. —8 p. (In Russian)

23. GOST 33959–2016 “Salted cheeses. Specification” -Moscow: Standartinform, 2016. — 20 p. (In Russian)

24. GOST 5867–90 “ Milk and dairy products. Method of determination of fat”-Moscow: Standartinform, 2009. — 13 p. (In Russian)

25. GOST 3626–73 “Milk and milk products. Methods for determination of moisture and dry substance” -Moscow: Standartinform, 2009. — 12 p. (In Russian)

26. Tinyakov, G.G. (1972). Microstructure of milk and dairy products. Moscow: Food Industry, 1972.

27. Zyablitseva, M.A. (April 30, 2019). Comparative analysis of the chemical composition and nutritional value of goat’s and cow’s milk. Materials of the XIV International Scientific and Practical Conference: Quality of products, technologies and education. Magnitogorsk: Magnitogorsk State Technical University named after G. I. Nosov, 2019. (In Russian)

28. GOST R54662–2011 “Cheeses and processed cheeses. Determination of protein mass fraction by the Kjeldahl method”. -Moscow: Standartinform, 2012. — 20 p. (In Russian)

29. GOST 5867–90 “Milk and dairy products. Method of determination of fat”. — Moscow: Standartinform, 2009. — 13 p. (In Russian)

30. Zhizhin, N.A., Yurova, E.A., E. Semenova, E.S. (2015). Using the method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to study the peptide composition of milk and its processed products. In the collection: Scientific support of microbiology of the dairy industry, biotechnology, technology, quality control and safety. Collection of scientific papers. Creation of the All-Russian Research Institute of Dairy Industry (VNIMI). 2015, 54–60. (In Russian)

31. Transglutaminase. Retrieved from Дата доступа 25.10.2021 Accessed October 25, 2021 (In Russian)

32. Gorlov, I. F., Slozhenkina, M. I., Bozhkova, S. E., Belova, D. S., Vorontsova, E. S. (2020) analysis of the raw material suitability of dairy products and the quality of enriched cheese products. Proceedings of Lower Volga Agro-University Complex: Science and Higher Education, 3(59), 258–267.–9485–2020–03–27 (In Russian)

33. Pastukh, O.N., Karakulova, E. A. Kanina, K.A. (2020). Application of the transglutaminase enzyme in the dairy industry. Issues of sustainable development of society, 4–2, 596–599. (In Russian)

34. Zhukova, N.V., Suray N. M., Mayorov, A.A., Kudinov, B.D., Aydinov, H.T., Kudinova, M.G. (2019). Domestic and world experience in the development of the market for cheese and cheese products. Economic Sciences, 180, 39–45. (In Russian)


For citations:

Kanina K.A., Zhizhin N.A., Karakulova E.A., Atanasov P.R. Results of the complex evaluation of bryndza cheese and the byproduct milk whey with the use of enzyme MTG and its activity degree during storage. Food systems. 2021;4(4):294-307. (In Russ.)

Views: 442

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)