Preview

Food systems

Advanced search

Determining the authenticity of turmeric

https://doi.org/10.21323/2618-9771-2021-4-1-62-70

Full Text:

Abstract

The paper examines the problem of the composition instability in the ready ground spice, turmeric. Analysis of the prevalent methods for turmeric adulteration and substances used for these purposes is given. The visual assessment of color tints of the turmeric root, spices containing it and chemical dyes based on chromium salts is presented. The studies on determination of the lead and chromium content were carried out to study the content of these metals and test the hypothesis of using lead chromate as a dye in adulteration of turmeric. Using the method of electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy, it was found that the lead content in the analyzed turmeric samples varied from 1.72 ± 0.58 to 5.03 ± 1.80 mg/kg, while the chromium content was in a range of 5.56 ± 0.85 to 16.15 ± 2.32 mg/kg. As a result of species specific PCR, wheat DNA was revealed in all purchased samples of ground turmeric. The levels of the main raw material replacement were established, which were 0.14% to 14.95% with the correlation coefficient close to 100%; efficiency of the reaction was 1.95, which was 97.5% when expressed as percentage. These levels of an undeclared allergen in the product composition can cause a serious allergic reaction. The authors tested the hypothesis of introduction of sodium and potassium salts for correction of the color spectrum in the ready spice and its correspondence to the natural color within the color spectrum of turmeric. As a result of the complex study of the spice composition, quite high values of chromium were found, presumably not only from the lead chromate compound but also from chromic acid salts, as the high level of potassium that significantly exceeded the native content of this element was found.

About the Authors

N. L. Vostrikova
V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Natal’ya L. Vostrikova — doctor of technical sciences, Head of the Laboratory Center for food and feed testing.

109316, Moscow, Talalikhina str., 26 Tel.: +7-495-676-95-11 (413)



M. Yu. Minaev
V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Mihail Yu. Minaev — candidate of technical sciences, head of Laboratory of molecular biology and bioinformatics.

109316, Moscow, Talalikhina str., 26 Tel.: +7-495-676-95-11 (401)



K. G. Chikovani
V.M. Gorbatov Federal Research Center for Food Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Federation

Kristina G. Chikovani — engineer, Laboratory Scientific and methodological works, biological and analytical studies.

109316, Moscow, Talalikhina str., 26 Tel: +7 495-676-95-11 (412)



References

1. Nikolaeva, M.A., Polozhishnikova, M.A. (2009). Identification and detection of falsification of food product. Moscow: Форум Forum, Infra-M. — 464 p. (In Russian)

2. Prasath, D., Kandiannan, K., Leela, N. K., Aarthi, S., Sasikumar, B., Babu, K. N. (2018). Turmeric: Botany and production practices. Horticultural Reviews, 46, 99-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119521082.ch3.

3. Turmeric — a spice with amazing potential. Retrieved from https://spic-esguide.ru/spices/kurkuma/kurkuma-spetsiya-s-udivitelnym-potentsia-lom.html. Accessed November 10, 2020. (In Russian)

4. Turmeric may contain dangerous levels of lead. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326652 Accessed January 20, 2021.

5. Turmeric validated to treat glaucoma, osteoarthritis. Retrieved from https://guardian.ng/features/turmeric-validated-to-treat-glaucoma-os-teoarthritis-2/ Accessed January 20, 2021

6. How to use turmeric correctly: safe daily dose, useful properties, contraindications. urkuma-a spice with amazing potential. Retrieved from https://zen.yandex.ru/media/yellmed/kak-pravilno-upotrebliat-kurku-mu-bezopasnaia-sutochnaia-doza-poleznye-svoistva-protivopokazani-ia-5df2268a2beb4900b06fef5e Accessed November 15, 2020. (In Russian)

7. Sasikumar, B., Swetha, V.P., Parvathy, V.A., Sheeja, T.E. (2016). Advances in adulteration and authenticity testing of herbs and spices. Chapter in a book: Advances in Food Authenticity Testing: Improving Quality throughout the Food Chain, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK. 2016. 585-624.

8. Sasikumar, B., Syamkumar, S., Remya, R., Zachariah, T. J. (2004). PCR based detection of adulteration in the market samples of turmeric powder. Food Biotechnology, 18(3), 299-306. https://doi.org/10.1081/FBT-200035022

9. Dhanya, K., Syamkumar, S., Siju, S., Sasikumar, B. (2011). Sequence characterized amplified region markers: A reliable tool for adulterant detection in turmeric powder. Food Research International, 44(9), 2889-2895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2011.06.040

10. Parvathy, V. A., Swetha, V. P., Sheeja, T. E., Sasikumar, B. (2015). Detection of plant-based adulterants in turmeric powder using DNA barcoding. Pharmaceutical Biology, 53(12), 1774-1779. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1005756

11. Oh, S. H., Jang, C. S. (2020). Development and validation of a real-time PCR based assay to detect adulteration with corn in commercial turmeric powder products. Foods, 9(7), Article 882. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070882

12. Girme, A., Saste, G., Balasubramaniam, A. K., Pawar, S., Ghule, C., Hin-gorani, L. (2020). Assessment of curcuma longa extract for adulteration with synthetic curcumin by analytical investigations. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 191, Article 113603. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113603

13. Kourani, K., Kapoor, N., Badiye, A., Shukla, R. K. (2020). Detection of synthetic food color “Metanil yellow” in sweets: A systematic approach. Journal of Planar Chromatography — Modern TLC, 33(4), 413-418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00764-020-00046-9.

14. Lakshmi S, Padmaja G, Remani P. (2011). Antitumour Effects of Iso-curcumenol Isolated from Curcuma zedoaria Rhizomes on Human and Murine Cancer Cells. International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011, Article 253962. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/253962

15. 10 spices and spices that may be fake. Retrieved from https://domopravi-telnitsa.com/sovety/10-spetsiy-i-pryanostey-kotoryie-mogut-okazat-sya-poddelkoy.html. Accessed November 10, 2020. (In Russian)

16. Turmeric may contain dangerous levels of lead. Retrieved from https://foodismedicine.ru/svinets-v-kurkume/. Accessed November 10, 2020. (In Russian)

17. Gleason, K., Shine, J. P., Shobnam, N., Rokoff, L. B., Suchanda, H. S., Ibne Hasan, M. O. S. at al. (2014). Contaminated turmeric is a potential source of lead exposure for children in rural Bangladesh. Journal ofEnvironmental and Public Health, 2014, Article 730636. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/730636

18. Forsyth, J. E., Weaver, K. L., Maher, K., Islam, M. S., Raqib, R., Rahman, M. at al. (2019). Sources of blood lead exposure in rural Bangladesh. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(19), 11429-11436. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00744

19. Vostrikova, N.L. (2009). Development of scientific and methodological bases for integrated monitoring of toxic and biogenic elements in organs and tissues of farm animals and poultry based on the principles of traceability. Author’s abstract of the dissertation for the scientific degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences. Moscow: VNIIMP. — 24 p. (In Russian)

20. Paranthaman, R., Moses, J. A., Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2021). Development of a method for qualitative detection of lead chromate adulteration in turmeric powder using X-ray powder diffraction. Food Control, 126, Article 107992. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.107992

21. We distinguish turmeric from fake-working methods! Retrieved from https://kurkumagia.ru/kak-otlichit-nastoyashhuyu-kurkumu-ot-poddel-ki/. Accessed November 10, 2020. (In Russian)

22. Macedo, I. Y. L. D., Machado, F. B., Ramos, G. S., Costa, A. G. D. C., Batista, R. D., Filho, A. R. G. at al. (2021). Starch adulteration in turmeric samples through multivariate analysis with infrared spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 340, Article 127899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127899

23. GOST 33425-2015 “Meat and meat products. Determination of nickel, chromium and cobalt by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry”. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. —11 p. (In Russian)

24. MUK 4.1.986-00 Method of measuring the mass fraction of lead and cadmium in food products and food raw materials by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. — Moscow: Federal Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federatio. 2000. —32 p. (In Russian)

25. GOST EN15505-2013 “Foodstuffs. Determination of trace elements. Determination of sodium and magnesium by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion”. Moscow: Standartinform, 2019. —25 p. (In Russian)

26. GOST R55484-2013 “Meat and meat products. Determination of sodium, potassium, magnesium and manganese by flame atomic absorption”. Moscow: Standartinform, 2014. —11 p. (In Russian)

27. MR4.2.0019-11 Identification of the raw material composition of meat products: Methodological recommendations. Moscow: Federal Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor, 2011. —36 p. (In Russian)

28. Welcome to NCBI. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Accessed January 20, 2021

29. Primer-BLAST. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/tools/primer-blast/index.cgi. Accessed January 20, 2021

30. OligoAnalyzer Tool. Retrieved from http://eu.idtdna.com/calc/analyzer Accessed January 20, 2021

31. Melting Curve Predictions Software Retrieved from: https://dna-utah.org/umelt/umelt.html Accessed January 20, 2021

32. Kurbakov, K.A., Konorov, E.A., Zhulinkova, V.N., Minaev, M. Yu. (2019). Detection of soybean by real-time PCR in the samples subjected to deep technological processing. Theory and practice of meat processing, 4(4), 23-27. https://doi.org/10.21323/2414-438X-2019-4-4-23-27

33. Kurbakov, K. A., Konorov, E. A., Minaev, M. Y., Kuznetsova, O. A. (2019). Multiplex real-time PCR with HRM for detection of lactobacillus sakei and lactobacillus curvatus in food samples. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 57(1), 97-104. https://doi.org/10.17113/ftb.57.01.19.5983

34. TR TU 021/2011 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “On the safety of food products” (as amended on August 08, 2019, Decision of the Council of the Eurasian economic Commission of December 09, 2011, № 880. Moscow, 2013. (In Russian)

35. TR CU 027/2012 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “ On the safety of certain types of specialized food products, including dietary therapeutic and dietary preventive nutrition “, Decision of the Council of the Eurasian economic Commission of June 15, 2012. № 34. Moscow, 2012. (In Russian)

36. TR CU 034/2013 Technical Regulations of the Customs Union “On the safety of meat and meat products”, Decision of the Council of the Eurasian economic Commission of October 09, 2013, № 68. Moscow, 2013. (In Russian)

37. Kim, I.N., Shtanko, T.I., Kraschenko, V.V. (2019). Food chemistry. The presence of metals in the products. Moscow: Urite. — 213 p. (In Russian)


For citation:


Vostrikova N.L., Minaev M.Yu., Chikovani K.G. Determining the authenticity of turmeric. Food systems. 2021;4(1):62-70. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.21323/2618-9771-2021-4-1-62-70

Views: 289


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)