Food systems

Advanced search

Diversity of sambal types in Indonesia

Full Text:


Sambal is a processed chili paste with a spicy taste. The history of sambal begins with the arrival of chili seeds brought by the Portuguese in the 16th century, which was like a cultural renaissance of spicy foods. The methodology used for this research included analysis of food ethnographic literature, origin, function and types of sambal found in relevant articles and book chapters. The results show that the population with the highest consumption of sambal lives on the Sumatra Islands. There are two types of sambal preparation methods, namely slicing and mashing. Some chili sauces can be cooked or eaten raw. Sambal diversity is influenced by several factors, namely resources, geographical factors, history, and culture. Thus, sambal is considered to be an important contributor to food diversity in Indonesia because every local cuisine includes sambal and it is never left behind.

About the Authors

L. L. Rahmah
Akademi Kuliner dan Patiseri OTTIMMO Internasional

Latifahtur Rahmah, Master Degree, Lecturer, Culinary Art

Jalan Bukit Telaga Golf TC‑4/2–3 Citraland, Surabaya, East Java, 60115

Tel.: +628–969–967–17–46

A. N. M. Ansori
Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Airlangga; Uttaranchal Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Uttaranchal University

Arif N. M. Ansori, Doctor in Veterinary Science, Assistant Lecturer

Jl. Mulyorejo, Kec. Mulyorejo, Surabaya, East Java, 60115

Tel.: +628–214–464–78–32


1. Rahman, F. (2016). Jejak Rasa Nusantara: Sejarah Masakan Indonesia. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2016. (In Indonesian)

2. Cornelia. (1864). Kokki Bitja Atau Tab Masak-Masakan India. Batavia: Lange and Co., 1864. (In Indonesian)

3. Sulistijowati, S R., Manteu, S H., T. M. (2020). Kuliner Sambal Ikan. Yogyakarta: Deepublish, 2020. (In Indonesian)

4. Rahman, F. (2018). Kuliner sebagai identitas keindonesiaan. Jurnal Sejarah, 2(1), 43–63. (In Indonesian)

5. Priyono, U. (2017).Kuliner (di) Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Mata Jendela, 2017.

6. Harsono, Hardjohutomo. (1967). Buku Masakan Indonesia Mustika Rasa: Resep2 Masakan Indonesia dari Sabang sampai Merauke. Departemen pertanian R.I., 1967. (In Indonesian)

7. Mansyur, M H., Hajriani, S. (2019). Physicochemical analysis of sambal ikan (stelephorus sp). Gorontalo Agriculture Technology Journal, 3, 23–30. (In Indonesian)

8. Ernawati, H., Suwandojo, D.P.E.H. (2020). Consumer preferences for indonesian culinary. Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business, 34(3), 280–293.

9. Romanovsky, A. A. (2015). Protecting western red cedar from deer browsing — with a passing reference to TRP channels. Temperature, 2(2), 142–149.

10. Yudhistira, B., Fatmawati, A. (2020). Diversity of Indonesian soto. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 7(1), Article 27.–020–00067-z

11. Handoyo, C. C., Clarissa, Claudia, G., Milka, Firdayanti, S. A. (2018). Klappertaart: an Indonesian–Dutch influenced traditional food. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 5(2), 147–152.

12. Santyaningtyas, A. C., Noor, M. Z. M. (2016). Preserving of traditional culture expression in Indonesia. Asian Social Science, 12(7), 59–65.

13. Wardhani, D. H., Aryanti, N., Buchori, L., Cahyono, H. (September 19–20, 2019). Application of an integrated cooking pan in sambal production. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1295, Article 012075.–6596/1295/1/012075

14. Situngkir, H. Maulana, F., Dahlan, R.V. (2015). Portrait of diversity in Indonesian traditional cuisine. Munich Personal RePEc Archive. Retrieved from Accessed March 20, 2023

15. Trichopoulou, A., Vasilopoulou, E., Georga, K., Soukara, S., Dilis, V. (2006). Traditional foods: Why and how to sustain them. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(9), 498–504.

16. Niehof, A. (2010). Food, diversity, vulnerability and social change: Research Findings from Insular Southeast Asia. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2010.–90–8686–671–7

17. Durazzo, A. (2019). The close linkage between nutrition and environment through biodiversity and sustainability: Local foods, traditional recipes, and sustainable diets. Sustainability, 11(10), Article 2876.

18. Hutami, R. (2015). Sambal, Indigenous food from Indonesia: Potentially prevent atherosclerosis and cancer, and study of its halal critical points. Jurnal Agroindustri Halal, 1, 001–012.

19. Klein, J.A., Watson, J.L. (2016). The Handbook of Food and Anthropology. New York: Blomsbury, 2016.

20. Emmez, B. C. (2020). Plants and foods as identity markers: An ethnographic analysis on the case of the (Y) Ezidis from Batman (Turkey). Journal of Ethnic Foods, 7, Article 5.–019–0038-y

21. Alpindo, A. (2018). Improving quality of fermentation “Sambal” through adding salt and stabilizer. AGRITEPA: Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Pertanian, 3(2), 1–10. (In Indonesian)

22. Rahman, F. (2019). Exploring the study of food as a cross-disciplinary discourse. Metahumaniora, 9(1), 41–53. (In Indonesian)

23. Rahman, F. (2016). Rijsttafel (Budaya Kuliner di Indonesia Masa Kolonial 1870–1942). Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2016. (In Indonesian)

24. Salsabila, G. (1970). Cabai: Pengaruh Portugis yang Dicintai Hingga Kini. Ilmu Sejarah, Universitas Airlangga, 121811433039 / Sejarah Indonesia Abad XVII– XVIII A Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Cabai_Pengaruh_Portugis_yang_Dicintai_Hi%20(1).pdf Accessed March 15, 2023 (In Indonesian)

25. Shi, X. (2013). Transformation of Indonesian Chinese identity and evolution of Chinese newspaper in the 20th century. Proceedings of International Conference on Chinese — Indonesians. Semarang: Institute for Research and Community Service Petra Christian University, 2013.

26. Rianti, A., Novenia, A. E., Christopher, A., Lestari, D., Parassih, E.K. (2018). Ketupat as traditional food of Indonesian culture. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 5(1), 4–9.

27. Yuen, D. (2013).). Indonesian cooking satays, sambals and more: 81 homestyle recipes with the treue taste of Indonesia. Jakarta: Tuttle Publishing, 2013.

28. Febriyanti, R., Qomariyah, O. N. (2020). Diversifikasi produk olahan berbahan Sambal Desa Kedungrawan Kecamatan Krembung Kabupaten Sidoarjo. SELAPARANG, 4(1), 451–454. (In Indonesian)

29. von Holzon, H., Arsana, L. (2007). The Food of Indonesian. Tuttle Publishing, 2007.

30. Mahagangga, I. G. O., Suryawan, I. B., Koesbardiati, T., Anom, I. P. T. (2020). Case study of balinese tourism: Myth as cultural capital. Utopía y Praxis Latinoamericana, 25(6), 122–133.

31. Cahyanto, T., Supriyatna, A., Sholikha, M., Saepuloh, A., Rahmawati, D. (2019). Inventory of plants used as lalapan in Subang, West Java. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2019(1), Article 020007,

32. Fibri, D. L. N., Frøst, M. B. (2019). Consumer perception of original and modernised traditional foods of Indonesia. Appetite, 133, 61–69.

33. Owen, S. (2014). Indonesian Food. London: Pavilion Publishing, 2914.

34. Bahar, A., Suwardiah, D.K. (Oktober 18–21, 2018). Effect of shelf life on the quality of fried sambal (condiments of instant uduk rice). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 347(1), Article 012020. Manila, The Philippines, 2018.–1315/347/1/012020

35. De, A. K. (2003). Capsicum: The Genus Capsicum Medicinal and Aromatic Plants — Industrial Profiles. London: Taylor & Francis, 2003.

36. Arumingtyas, E. L., Kusnadi, J., Sari, D. R. T., Ratih, N. (July 19–20, 2017). Genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper: The facts. AIP Conference Proceedings 1908(1), Article 050002. Malang, Indonesia.

37. Santhosha, H. M. (2020). Genetic diversity in bird eye chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) germplasm. Journal of Krishi Vigyan, 9(1), 156–159.–4433.2020.00153.1

38. Pepiana, A., Kadir, L., Yusuf. A. (2021). Bacteria identification in traditional sauce (sambal) at the restaurants nearby the traditional markei of Gorontalo City. Journal of Health, Technology and Science, 2(2), 11–18.

39. Wijaya, S. (2019). Indonesian food culture mapping: A starter contribution to promote Indonesian culinary tourism. Journal of Ethnic Foods, 6(1), Article 9.–019–0009–3

40. Naibaho, N. M., Damanik, N. S., Syauqi, A. (2020). Profil organoleptik sambal segar andaliman (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium DC) dan batang kecombrang (Etlingera elatior) muda. Journal Tropical AgriFood, 2(1), 1–7.–7 (In Indonesian)

41. Widawati, L., Efrianti. S. (2015). Preferensi panelis dan efektifitas penggunaan bahan penstabil terhadap mutu sambal hijau tempoyak. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan, 4(1), 42–47. (In Indonesian)

42. Junita, D., Novitasari, M. (2019). Analisis masa simpan produk sambal Tempoyak berpotensi sebagai produk Oleh-Oleh baru. Jurnal Akademika Baiturrahim, 8(1), 50–57. (In Indonesian)

43. Rajagukguk, Y. V., Arnold, M. (2021). Tempoyak: Fermented durian paste of Malay ethnic and its functional properties. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 23(10), Article 100297.

44. Fitriani, V., Ayuningtyas, H., Tio, D., Permana, L., Wahyuningtyas, A. (2021). Karakterisasi fisik, kimia, dan sensoris saus sambal mangga kweni (Mangifera odorata Griff) dengan variasi konsentrasi asam sitrat dan durasi sterilisasi. Journal of Science and Applicative Technology, 5(1), 158–162. (In Indonesian)

45. Restiana, F. (2019). Lezatnya Sambal Seruit. Jakarta: Badan Pengembangan Bahasa dan Perbukuan Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Jalan, 2019. (In Indonesian)

46. Ahmad, A., Kastaman, R., Mardawati, E. (2020). Standard level determination of pungency in sambal terasi (case of study: Warung makan Betawi micro small medium enterprises). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 443(1), Article 012040.–1315/443/1/012040

47. Muhammad Shahrim, A. K., Siti, S.A.R., Noranizan, M.A., Angelo, A.C. (2011). Consumers’ Perspective towards malaysian traditional food: Sambal belacan (chilli shrimp paste), a preliminary investigation. Journal of Agribusiness Marketing, 4, 68–92.

48. Wibowo, N., Setiani, B.E., Hintono, A. (2018). Karakteristik hedonik sambal pecel hasil substitusi kacang tanah (Arachis hypogaea) dengan kacang hijau (Vigna radiata L.). Jurnal Teknologi Pangan, 1(1), 191–197. (In Indonesian)

49. Yuliantoro, N., Yap, C., Gunawan, C. A. (2022). Pelatihan pembuatan Seitan Masak Woku dan Sambal Matah Secara online pada Binaan SML UMKM Centre Rumah Pintar Serpong. Jurnal Abdimas BSI: Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat, 5(2), 304–314. (In Indonesian)

50. Susetia Mahdi, I., Satriawan, I., Wrasiati, L. (2017). Pemilihan jenis kuliner tradisional sebagai pendukung pengembangan agrowisata di Desa Kerta, Kecamatan Payangan. Jurnal Rekayasa dan Manajemen Agroindustri, 5(1), 93–104. (In Indonesian)

51. Suriani, N. M., Ariani, R. P. (2020). Balinese fusion food as local culinary tourism products. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Social, Applied Science, and Technology in Home Economics (ICONHOMECS2019), 406(2), 228–233.

52. Jero, W. (2018). Indonesia Culinary Treasures. Minister of Culture and Turism of The Republic of Indonesia, 2018.

53. Oktarianto, A., Widawati, L. (2017). Quality characteristics of “sambal lemea” with fermentation time and type of fish. AGRITEPA: Jurnal Ilmu Dan Teknologi Pertanian, 4(2), 133–145. (In Indonesian)

54. Asmawati, A., Jumisayati, J., Saputrayadi, A. (2020). The quality analysis of sambal masin (Sumbawa Specialties) with variation concentrations of salt and tamarind. Agrikan Jurnal Agribisnis Perikanan, 13(2), 402–411.–411

55. Khairina, R., Khotimah, I.K., Yazid, M., Fadliani, R. (2021). Chemical and organoleptic characteristics of sambal ronto. International Journal of Advance Tropical Food, 2(2), 43–50.


For citations:

Rahmah L.L., Ansori A. Diversity of sambal types in Indonesia. Food systems. 2023;6(3):288-297.

Views: 192

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 2618-9771 (Print)
ISSN 2618-7272 (Online)